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Full text of "Industrial work of Tuskegee graduates and former students during the year 1910"

CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




GIFT OF 



^fr. Gould 



Cornell University Library 
LC2851.T9521dW92 

Industrial work of Tuskegee graduates an 



3 1924 010 020 836 




The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924010020836 



Industrial Work 



Tuskegee Graduates and Former Students 



During the Year 1910 



BY 

MONROE N. WORK 

Division of Research and Records 

Tuskegee Institute, Ala. 



^ 



Jnistitute &ttge 

Tuskegee Institute, Alabama 

1911 



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"'/<'/, 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Introduction 5 

Chapter I Agricultural Work . . 6-21 

Chapter II Work in The Trades . . 22-40 

Chapter III Work of Trained Nurses . 41-46 

Chapter IV Work of Offshoots of Tuske- 

gee Institute . . . 47-59 

Chapter V The Value of an Industrial 

Education . . . 60-63 



m9m >T» JV» 



Industrial JVork of Tuskegee Graduates 
and Former Students 

THE Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute endeavors to so 
train its students that they will go out and engage in some form of 
industrial work. The Institution's efforts have borne gdod fruit. 
Almost two-thirds of its 1,508 graduates and three-fourths of its 12,000 
former students are directly or indirectly engaged in some form of industrial 
work. Of 101 graduates and former students who live in Atlanta, Georgia, 
and vicinity, 68, or 67 per cent, are directly engaged in industrial pursuits. 
Of 111 who live in Montgomery, Alabama, and vicinity, 92, or 93 per cent, 
are directly engaged in industrial pursuits. 

The trades and industries in which the graduates and former students 
are working are, agriculture, architecture, baking, blacksmithing, bookkeep- 
ing, brickmasonry, cabinet-making, carpentry, carriage- making, cooking 
demonstration, domestic service, dressmaking, stationary engineering, elec- 
trical engineering, firemen, horticulture, harness-making, machinists, millin- 
ery, mining, molding, trained nursing, painting, plumbing, printing, sawmill- 
ing, shoemaking, tailoring, tinsmithing, wheelwrighting and woodturning. 

Many of the graduates and former students are conducting businesses 
connected with some trade, such as architecture, the bakery business, black- 
smithing and wheelwrighting, the florist business, millinery, printing, shoe- 
making, tailoring and tinsmithing. 

A large number, though not engaged primarily in industrial work, 
supplement their regular work by some form of industrial work, as, for ex- 
ample, a great many supplement their teaching by farming. 

In order to find out just what industrial success is being made by per- 
sons sent out from Tuskegee, a special study was made during the year 1910 
of 746 individuals, taken at random, 417 graduates and 329 former students. 
The trades in which they are engaged, the length of time they have worked 
at these trades, their success in their work, their property accumulations, 
and their standing in the various communities where they live have been in- 
vestigated. In this connection the industrial work of the various schools 
that have been founded by graduates and former students has also been 
studied. 

Throughout the study especial effort has been made to find out just 
what effect the work of the persons sent out from Tuskegee is having upon 
the people among whom they are working. The last chapter is devoted to 
a discussion of the increase in the earning capacity of industrially trained 
persons, and the value in dollars and cents that Tuskegee Institute's work 
in training Negro youths has been to the South. 

[5] 



CHfAPTER I. 

Agricultural ff^ork 

THIRTY of the graduates and former students are teaching Agriculture 
in various schools. Of these Wallace W. Hayes, '09-, teaches Aferi- 
cultuTe at the Snow HSU Normal and Industrial Institute, Snow Hill, 
Ala.; S. J. Willoughby, '05, at the Prentiss Normal and Industrial Institute; 
Prentiss, Mississippi; William Harris Crutcher, '02, Dennis A. Starks, '08, 
and F. H. Gardoza, '01, at the Florida State Normal School, Tallahassee, 
Florida; RoUin W. James, '04, St. Paul Normal and Industrial School, 
Lawrenceville, Virginia; Edward D. Jenkins, '01, at the Voorhees Industrial 
School, Denmark, South Carolina; and Eugene LeGompte, '03, at the 
University of Porto Rico, Porto Rico. 

Louis A. Smith, '98, has for 12 years been in the employ of the Forest 
City Creamery Company, of Rockford, 111. He is one of the most trusted 
and proficient employees of the company, and does some of the most difficult 
and delicate work connected, with that creamery. He began work at $1 25 
per day and now receives $19 per week, with vacation' and salary con- 
tinued. He has accumulated considerable property. He has recently built 
a nice eight-room residence at a cost of $3,000< also another house for rent- 
ing. He owns eight other lots and is preparing to build on some of them 

Eight of the graduates are working for the United States Department 
of Agriculture as ; Agricultural Demonstration Agents, in the states of Ala- 
bama, Louisiana, Mississippi, Oklahoma, South Carolina and Virginia. 
The purpose of the Demonstration Work is to get a farmer in a community 
to set aside a small portion of his land and to pl^nt and cultivate it under 
the direction of a Government expert. Other farmers in the community 
are invited to come and see how the selected plot is prepared, planted and 
cultivated. They are induced to put into practice what they have learned. 
Thus by means of a single tract of land, the farming methods of an entire 
community are imprioved, and the yield of products greatly increased. Where 
farmers formerly raised 5 to 15< bushels of corn per acre, they are now, be- 
cause of the teaching of, these Demonstration Agents, raising from 30 to 60 
bushels. Where from 150 to 200 pounds of lint cotton were produced, per 
acre, now from 250 t-o 600 pounds are being produced per acrei 

The Demonstration Agents do not confine themselves to teaching im- 
proved farming methods, but they also assist the people in getting better 
live stock, having better, gardens and improving their homes. 

Idhn:B. Pierce, '97, is District Demonstration Agent in Virginia. He 
has a number of other agents working under him. Pierce operates a farm 

[6] 



<3 _ 

2 en 

a c 




*^Jifei 



Graduates and Former Students 

of his own in the district where he works and has exerted a profound influ- 
ence upon the people. In addition to teaching them better methods of 
farming, he has taught them how to have better homes, better schools and 
better churches. 

Edward D. Jenkins, '01, in addition to his work as Superintendent of 
Agriculture at the Voorhees Industrial School, also carries on Demonstration 
work among the farmers in the vicinity of the school. 

James R. Council, '07, is Demonstration Agent for Okfuskee County, 
Oklahoma. About two years ago Council went out to Oklahoma and en- 
gaged in farming. Seeing that the neighboring farmers needed instruction, 
he began to teach them. The results were so gratifying that he deVoted 
more of his time to this and extended his teaching to various parts of Okfus- 
kee County. What he was doing was called to the attention of the Gov- 
ernor of Oklahoma and to the United States Department of Agriculture. 
After working seven months without a salary. Council was regularly ap- 
pointed Demonstration Agent. He has been able to get the farmers very 
much interested in the Demonstration Work, and has organized successful 
corn clubs among the boys. 

James A. Booker, '07, is Demonstration Agent for Bolivar County, 
Mississippi. This is the county in which the famous Negro town of 
Mound Bayou is located. There are about 6,000 colored farmers in the 
immediate vicinity of Mound Bayou. Booker is directing the Agricultural 
operations of this Negro community. He has done a good work there on 
the farms, in the homes and with the schools. 

Thomas M. Campbell, '06, is a District Demonstration Agent and 
works in Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana. He was one of the first col- 
ored Demonstration Agents to be appointed by the United States Govern- 
ment. He did his first work in Macon County, Alabama, where he was 
able to greatly increase the yield of the cotton and corn of the colored 
farmers. During the two years that he was agent for Macon County, he 
got a large percentage of the farmers to adopt the intensive methods of 
farming, to have better breeds of horses and cows, and to raise more chick- 
ens and to have gardens. The excellence of his work in this county caused 
the Government to promote him to a larger position and to put the work 
among the colored farmers in Alabama, Mississippi and Louisiana under his 
direction. 

Harry Simms, '08, is Demonstration Agent for Wilcox County, Ala- 
bama. There are over 5,000 farmers in this county. He is doiiig a suc- 
cessful work there. The farmers have been organiited into Farmers' Im- 
provement Clubs, and the boys into Corn Clubs. Through these clubs, the 
homes are improved and better live stock, poultry and gardens are produced, 

[7] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 

and the boys are being interested in farming. Mr. Simms has the hearty 
co-operation of the white planters. They invite him on their plantations, 
provide demonstration plots and instruct their tenants to follow his direc- 
tions. On one large plantation the planter called his tenants together and 
told them that "this man is sent by the Government and you are to do 
whatever he tells you." The white plantation owners are also contributing 
a large number of premiums for a colored County Fair to be held in the 
fall. 

C. D. Menafee, '95, is farming at Opelika, Ala. He owns a good 
farm there of some 60 acres, which adjoins the town, and also some city 
property. He was so successful as a farmer that the United States engaged 
him to be a Demonstration Agent for Lee County, Alabama. He is mak- 
ing a success of this work. 

Washington Tate, '06, is the United States Demonstration Agent for 
Macon County, Alabama. He is doing a most excellent work. Under his 
direction the farmers of this county have got hold of prolific varieties of corn, 
and where formerly they raised one small scrubby ear per stalk, they are 
now raising an average of six good ears per stalk. In communities where 
there had never been any gardens before, he has got the people to have 
gardens the entire year, and from one such community he recently brought a 
two-horse wagonload of cabbage from the gardens of ten families, which the 
Tuskegee Institute Cannery made into kraut for these families. As a further 
example of what he is doing, mention is made of the Fort Hull Community 
Farmers' Improvement Club. A committee from Tuskegee Institute re- 
cently inspected the gardens belonging to the members of this club and 
reported as follows: 

The trip from beginning to end was full of inspiration and encouragement to both the 
Committee and to those we sought to help. 

Forty gardens were inspected. Following are the names of the different kinds of veg- 
etables we found growing in the gardens: peas, cabbage, onions, tomatoes, radishes, beets, 
turnips, cucumbers, rape, collards, snap beans, lima beans, corn, mustard, pepper, lettuce 
and carrots. The gardens are all in good condition. The best three received prizes. 

One of the gardens inspected received a low mark. The owner said that he tried to 
work his garden independently of the Farmers' Improvement Club, but he saw that he was 
failing and therefore joined the club just in time to enter the contest. Since joining the 
club, his garden has improved. 

We inspected one garden which the owner, a woman, told us that she planted in part 
by moonlight because she did not have the time in the day. 

Though we were inspecting only gardens, we could not overlook the fact that the 
front yards, back yards, chicken-yards, hog-pens and horse-stables were clean and presented 
a good appearance. Some of the front yards had flowers in them. The committee was 
much impressed with the cleanly, healthy, wholesome appearance of these forty homes. 

The work of the Fort Hull Farmers' Improvement Club has been so 
helpful to this community that Mr. M. S, Rys^ell, one of the wealthiest 

[8] 



Graduates and Former Students 

white plantation owners in Macon County, has become a member of the 
club. In speaking about why he had made himself a member, he said that 
he had done this through no sentimental reason, but because he believed it 
to be a good business proposition, and that whatever improved the economic 
condition of the colored people in his community, would also be a benefit 
to himself. 

Mr. Russell writes the following concerning this club: 

To Whom It May Concern: 

The Farmers' Improvement Club which was organized through the Agent of the 
United States Department of Agriculture, in the Fort Hull community, some six months 
ago, in my opinion is one of the best organizations that I know of, for the land owner as 
well as the tenant. This club has about one hundred and fifty members and it can be very 
plainly seen that they are taking more interest in home affairs, gardens and farms. 

I think it would be beneficial to the whole South if such clubs would be organized in 
every farming community. 

Very truly, 

(Signed) Morgan S. Russell. 

Mr. J. S. Webb, another wealthy farmer writes: 

To Whom It May Concern: 

I have watched with pleasure the Farmers' Co-operative Demonstration Work in 
Macon County for the past four years. I wish to state that it has been of great benefit to 
the farmers of this county. I do not believe that Macon County could have a better agent 
for this work than Mr. Washington A. Tate. He is especially adapted to this section inas- 
much as he understands so thoroughly the uneducated farmer, the one he is striving so un- 
tiringly to help. 

I am proud to recommend Mr. Tate to all who are interested in farming, 

(Signed) J. S. Webb, 

Merchant and Planter. 

The Demonstration Work, as far as possible, co-operates with the pub- 
lic schools. In Sambo community, 22 miles from Tuskegee Institute, Mr. 
Tate helped the people to make a school garden. He thus describes how 
this was done: After quite an effective devotional exercise the president 
introduced me and turned the house over to me. It was at this point that 
I put before them the plan of having a school garden as an object lesson to 
the community. Every one readily agreed to aid in every possible way to 
get this plot prepared. Fencing was to be done. Monday night the trees 
for fencing stood in the forest, uncut, but Tuesday at twelve o'clock found 
the garden fence very nearly up, with men, women and children hard at work 
for its completion. 

"By the co-operation of the teachers and patrons, there is now in the 
Sambo community a well-constructed garden containing a half acre, well 
prepared and planted with rape for winter use." 

Stephen T. Powell, who graduated from Tuskegee Institute in 1903, 
is doing a very unique and important agricultural work at Hilton Head Is- 

[9] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 

land, South Carolina. This Island is about 18 miles long and 8 miles wide. 
It has upon it about 50 white people, and 3.000 Negroes. Fishing and oys- 
tering are the chief industries. Powell found the people farming almost 
altogether by hand. Three persons carried on the planting of grain: the 
first person would dig a hole for the seed, the second would plant it and the 
third would cover it. He introduced the use of the plow. Through the 
generosity of the owners of the Island, Mr. Powell has been given the privi- 
lege of selling the land in small tracts to colored people, and in this way to 
gradually build up an agricultural colony. Numbers of families are being 
brought from the inland part of South Carolina and from other states. Mr. 
Powell has a farm of 25 acres which he operates as a demonstration plot for 
the other farmers. He is in daily contact with each family and in this way 
is able to exert a very helpful influence on their daily lives. He is taking an 
active part in their church work, and conducts a farmers' conference. The 
ten public schools on the Island are also under his charge, and through him 
receive aid from the Jeanes Fund. 

Two other graduates of Tuskegee are associated with Mr. Powell in 
this work. One of these, Chas. H. Thurston, '08, who has charge of one 
of the schools, writes: "When I arrived here I found everything in a dilapi- 
dated condition. The schoolhouse was surrounded by weeds and bushes as 
tall as itself, the fence had fallen down, the steps were torn away and there 
were no knobs on the door. I taught the children the use of lime and 
water. In the spring we started a garden in which the pupils took great de- 
light. The term which began with so many discouragements, we closed 
with great success." 

Many other graduates through their work as teachers in the rural 
schools are doing good work in improving agricultural conditions. Among 
these may be mentioned Melvin Judkins, '07, who is working in Barbour 
County, Alabama. In order to convince the people that he had come to do 
them good, Mr. Judkins worked among them all of last summer without 
pay. He has been able to secure the assistance of the Jeanes Fund and 
now has another teacher assisting him. She teaches industries in his school 
part of the week and the other part of the week travels throughout the 
county, teaching the people industrial lessons. 

Sarah L. Woodall, '02, is doing a most excellent work among the farm- 
ers in her home community, in the eastern part of Macon County, Alabama. 
She teaches sewing and gardening, and is very active in the local Farmers' 
Conference. The following report from her appeared May 20, 1910, in 
The Messenger, published at Tuskegee Institute: 

Dear Messenger: 

Brownsville community is not heard from often, but the people are down to actual 

[10] 



Graduates and Former Students 

work, and if the same working spirit is kept up, their accomplishments will speak louder 
than words. 

School closed three weeks ago; the children learned much that will be helpful to them 
in life. We had one or two patrons who kicked against extending the term, but as the 
kick came from parties who are not very valuable citizens, anyway, the term was extended. 

Last Saturday, May 7th, we held a very interesting Farmers' Conference. The at- 
tendance was not large but everyone was deeply interested. Two subjects were intelligent- 
ly discussed. First, The Best Method of Cultivating Corn. Second, How Gardens Should 
be Cultivated, and Why. Each one went away with a better knowledge of cultivating corn 
and working gardens. 

Brownsville is one of the most prosperous communities in the county. 
The people have here an excellent school building, good comfortable homes 
and own 2,775 acres of land. 

Two other graduates, Chas. G. Campfield, '04, and his wife, Isabella 
Kent Campfield, '07, are carrying on a very interesting work in one of the 
rural schools of Macon County, Alabama. They are articulating the school 
with every phase of the community's life. With the assistance of Tuske- 
gee Institute a combination dwelling and schoolhouse has been built. It 
contains five rooms: a bed room, a sitting room, a dining room and a special 
class room. There are also a barn and a garden. The children of the 
community attend here just as they do at any public school, but instead of 
sitting down in a class-room, they are divided up into sections, and while some 
cook, some clean the house, some clean the yard, some work in the garden 
some care for the live stock and some are receiving literary instruction. 
In this way they are taught how to care for a home, and how to work prop- 
erly in the field. The lessons in Arithmetic and English are drawn from 
the industrial work which is being carried on; and thus the ordinary school 
subjects are taught in a new and interesting manner. The pupils by this 
means connect their daily life with the school and literary studies, and also 
find that in their daily work, there is much that is interesting. 

Mr. and Mrs. Campfield conduct a young people's club, a mothers' club 
and a farmers' conference. At a recent meeting of the Tuskegee Monthly 
Farmers' Institute, the president of the Mothers' Club gave a very interest- 
ing account of the helpful work that was being done among the women of 
the community by Mrs. Campfield. The president of the local Farmers' 
Conference also reported that never in the history of the community had 
they had such intelligent farming, such good gardens and so great a rivalry 
of the farmers. This he said was due to the work of Mr. Campfield. 

Some Successful Farmers 

Henry A. Carlisle, '89, has for twenty years been teaching and farming 
near West Point, Ga. He owns 123 acres of land and two valuable houses 

[11] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 

and lots in West Point. His property is worth between $7,000 and $8,000. 
Each year for the past 27 years, he has been able to save at least $100. 

Sandy A. Hill, '07, is doing good work as a farmer at Beggs, Okla- 
homa. He owns his farm. 

Terry Jackson, a former student, is a farmer near Bonus, Texas. He 
writes as follows concerning his work: 

Dear Principal: 

I left Tuskegee in 1904 after having reached the A. Middle Class. I have been 
busy ever since, For three years I taught agriculture in the Conroe .College, Conroe, 
Texas; but I was not satisfied at this, and have since been farming for myself, and in ad- 
dition, I conduct a grocery and dry goods store. 

I have sixteen acres of fine white potatoes planted, which will be ready for the mar- 
ket soon. I also have forty-five acres of corn in c.ultivation. I am interested in swine 
raising and have twenty-two head of good hogs. 

I will never forget the training which I received at Tuskegee Institute, and regret 
that I was not able to finish the course. 

(Signed) Terry G. Jackson. 

James E. Edwards, a former student, is in the poultry business near 
Montgomery, Alabama. He writes as follows: 
Dear Principal Washington: 

I count it a pleasure to write you a letter to let you you know something of the 
work which I have done since leaving Tuskegee Institute in 1904. I went to Shreveport, 
Louisiana, where I spent two and one half years in the dairy business, In 1907 I came 
to Montgomery, and am now engaged in the poultry business, and am meeting with 
success. 

I married in 1908, and have a most helpful companion. We own a nice home and 
two additional lots. 

We attend church regularly each Sunday. 

(Signed) James £. Edwards. 

John Elders, a former student, is doing well as a farmer at High 
Ridge, Ala. 

Chas. Lewis Williams who left Tuskegee in 1898, has for ten years 
been successfully farming at his home, Waugh, Alabama. He owns his 
farm and is a valuable man in his community. The following testimonials 
are from his white neighbors: 

To Whom It May Concern: — 

This is to certify that we have known C. L. Williams since boyhood and that he 
has always conducted himself in a manner that will meet the approval of anyone. He is 
always polite and holds the respect of his neighbors. He is now engaged in farming and 
takes an active interest in Sabbath school work. 
(Signed) 

M. W. McDale, Justice of the Peace; L. S. Wiglesworth, Postmaster; James Mc- 
Dade, M. D.; J. W. Plicer. 
To Whom It May Concern: — 

This is to certify that we have known Chas. L. Williams for several years and have 
had business relations with him for the past two years, and we have not had a customer 

[12] 



Graduates and Former Students 

that was more polite and business-like. We have always found him perfectly honest and 
diligent about whatever he was engaged in. We have never heard anyone speak of him 
in any other than a complimentary way. Should anyone see fit to entrust him with any 
business, we feel confident he would always perform his duty to the best of his ability. 

(Signed) J. K. McClurkin, I. D. McClurkin. 

Chas. E. Bynes, '02, is a successful farmer at Millen, Georgia. He 
owns his farm. He is also a graduate of the Nurse Training Department 
of Tuskegee Institute. Because there is no other trained nurse in that 
vicinity, he is called upon to do a good deal of nursing. 

Lucius W". Scott, '04, is farming and dealing in timber at Facklers, Al- 
abama. 

Alfred P. Gazaway, '91, is a teacher and truck gardener in Jefferson 
County, Alabama. He has recently built a good home in Cardiff, Ala- 
bama. 

WilHam Sidney Burrel, '06, a contractor and builder at Lawyers, Vir- 
ginia, is also farming at that place. 

Geo. W. Lovejoy, '88, in addition to his law practice, is in the truck 
farming and dairy business at Mobile, Alabama. 

Frank L. Todd, a former student, who entered Tuskegee in 1881, the 
first year of its opening, is now a farmer and a rural mail carrier in Mont- 
gomery County, Alabama. 

James H. Nichols, '07, is a farmer and preacher at Black Hawk, Miss- 
issippi. 

Chas. M. Jones, '06, is a farmer and machinist at Stallo, Mississippi. 
He is successful in both lines of his work. 

Horace B. Bennett, '08, farms for himself at Stallo, Mississippi. 

Jerry D. McCord, '07, is a farmer and a blacksmith at Stallo, Miss- 
issippi. He owns a good blacksmith shop there fitted up with the latest 
tools. He is the general machinist and all around workman for the com- 
munity. A number of his white neighbors send the following interesting 
testimonials: 

To Whom It May Concern: 

J. D. McCord has done both constructive and repair work for us, as carpenter and 
blacksmith, and has given perfect satisfaction. Seems to be well prepared for the work. 

(Signed) Yellow Pine Lumber Co., 

E. B. Causey, Manager. 

To Whom It May Concern: 

This is to certify that we the undersigned are well acquainted with J. D. McCord 
(colored), and know him to be an energetic man. He is making a success on his farm 
near Stallo, Mississippi. He bought his farm on credit and now has it paid for. He is 
also a good blacksmith and stands well in the community. 
(Signed) 

[13] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 

R. G. Moore, Sheriff; F. B. Dewers, Clerk of Circuit Court; F. L. Bryan, County 
Superintendent; D. Yarborough, Banker; John O. Gresham, Mayor, Stallo; W. A. 
McKee, Marshall, Stallo; W. G. Snow, Justice of the Peace; J. D. King. 

George K. Gordon, '02, after working several years on a dairy farm and 
as Superintendent of Agriculture in the Downingtown, Pennsylvania, Indus- 
trial School, is now settled and farming at his home, Abbeville, Alabama, 
where he owns a valuable tract of land near the town. Here he is assisting 
a widowed sister to care for her seven small children. In order to better 
do this, he is building a comfortable eight-room house. He pays taxes on 
$2,500 worth of property. 

Thomas Campbell and William Blanks, former students, have for sev- 
eral years owned and successfully operated their farms near Tallassee, Ala- 
bama. 

H. L. Todd, a former student, owns a large plantation near Union 
Springs, Alabama. He also has a good home in that town, and is a suc- 
cessful farmer and business man. 

R. C. Lucas, who was a student here in 1895, runs a two-horse farm 
at Mt. Meigs, Alabama, and also works at the carpenter's trade. 

Smart B. Boyd, '87, is a merchant and truck farmer at Greenville, Ala. 
He owns property there. 

Moses Silas Randall, a former student, has for twelve years worked on 
his own farm at Belleville, Alabama. During his extra time he runs en- 
gines for sawmills and gins. He says, "I never lose any time unless it can- 
not be helped." He owns 160 acres of land. The esteem in which he is 
held by his white neighbors is shown by the following testimonials: 

Hon. Booker T. Washington, 

Tuskegee, Ala., 
Dear Sir: — 

The bearer of this, Moses S. Randall, I have known since a child. After his course 
at your school, I sold him a farm of 80 acres, on time. He worked faithfully, teaching an 
occasional school, paying in full for the farm, and since, adding 80 acres more to the 
farm, all of which he has paid for, and is now out of debt. I consider him perfectly hon- 
est, truthful and reliable, and a model for his people to imitate. 

(Signed) W. M. Newton, Postmaster. 

Belleville, Ala., July 23, 1910. 
To Whom It May Concern: — 

We have known Moses S. Randall about all of his life and he is an honest and moral 
man. He has bought and paid for a nice farm and is making a good living for himself 
and large family. 
(Signed) 

R. H. Riggs, Justice of the Peace; C. D. Skinner, Constable; P. B. Skinner, 

[14] 



Graduates and Former Students 

M. D.; C. S. Skinner, Dentist; J. D. Skinner, Justice of the Peace; C. C. Newton, 
Notary Public. W. G. Brantley, S. T.; D. S. Crura, S. T. 

Honorable Booker T. Washington, 

Tuskegee, A'a., 
Dear Sir:— 

I have been asked to sign the above testimonial concerning Moses Randall, but I 
prefer saying some fevf things not said therein. 

I have known Moses Randall for almost eleven years and have always found him hon- 
est and true in every relation of life. He is a safe and clear headed leader of his race, and is 
doing all that he can to elevate his people, socially, morally and spiritually. 

He is a deacon of his church and a safe adviser and supporter of his pastor. 
He is humble, polite and patriotic, yet ever in the forefront of every good cause. 
Moses has the esteem of every white man in this section, so far as I know, and as 
well of his own color. 

We have homes, good homes, for all that you can send us like Moses. 
He not only has a good farm, but he is constantly improving same in an intelligent 
manner. He has a neatly constructed house that is an inspiration to his colored friends. 
Yours truly and fraternally, 

(Signed^ (Rev.) S. P. Lindsay, 

Pastor Baptist Church. 

Gabriel McGuire, a former student has been farming for sixteen years 
at Brundidge, Alabama. 

Prominent white citizens of that place say of him: 

This is to certify that Gabriel McGuire is a citizen of our community, he has been 
teaching and farming for a number of years, has given satisfaction as a teacher, and has 
been fairly successful as a farmer. He is temperate, law-abiding and stands well with all 
who know him. 

Signed: 

M. Lightfoot, President Brundidge Banking Co., F. C. Bass, Vice-president, Brun- 
didge Banking Co.; J. E. Leverette, W. L. Fleming, James T. Damag, R. C. Dickinson, 
Mayor; John A. McEachem, M. D.; J. H. Lawson, Justice of the Peace. 

C. H. Brown of Norwood, Louisiana, a former student writes as fol- 
lows: 

Dear Mr. Washington: 

I know that you and others who are doing so much for the students of Tuskegee, are 
proud to hear from them. 

I left Tuskegee in 1903. I had gone through the A Middle Class. I worked as a 
florist for one year in Birmingham, Alabama. Since that time (1904), I have been teach- 
ing and farming here. I am going into the poultry business and have for this purpose 
forty-five laying hens. I do the work on Saturdays and after school in the evening, because 
I am busy teaching from six to eight months in the year. I do not have any trouble in find- 
ing work to do. The Tuskegee Spirit makes it find me, and I don't have to look for it. I 
have bought a lot in Wilson, Louisiana, with a frontage of 188 feet. Will build in a few 
months. Have a small bank account. 

(Signed) C. H. Brown. 

Wade H. Smilie, '90, of Gause, Texas, is another farmer teacher. He 

[151 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 

teaches six months of the year and devotes all the remainder of the year to 
his farm. He receives $50.00 per month for teaching and $700.00 per year 
for produce from his farm. 

William and Isaac Bridgeforth, former students, are successful farmers 
at Strange, Alabama, where they each own 200 acres of land. 

William W. Randall, '04, is a farmer in Mississippi. He says: 

I have a farm of 70 acres all paid for. I work a small portion, rent 20 acres and 
have the rest in woodland and pasture. In addition to my farming, I have taught school 
and worked at the brickmasonry trade. My house has five rooms. I own eight head of 
live stock and a number of poultry. I killed enough pork to last me the entire year. I am 
out of debt. 

John T. Rutledge, '87, is a farmer and carpenter at Sellers, Alabama. 
He does most of the carpenter work for the community and operates a small 
farm upon which he raises cotton, corn, potatoes, peanuts, sugar cane and 
peas. He owns seven head of cattle and one horse. He writes: I get a 
little better off each year." 

John Wesley Perry, '90, has farmed for seventeen years at Myrtle, Ala- 
bama. He owns his farm, and, notwithstanding that 1909 was a bad crop year, 
he raised 21 bales of cotton, 100 bushels of corn, 10 tons of hay, 20 bushels 
of field peas, 120 bushels of sweet potatoes; made 87 gallons of syrup and killed 
950 pounds of meat. He estimates his entire crop to be worth $2,272. 
Up to April, 1910, he had sold $1,610 worth of his past year's produce. 

John Calhoun Thomas, a former student, who was one of the first 
students to enter Tuskegee Institute, has been farming for 17 years near 
Prattville, Alabama. He owns nine head of mules and horses, 13 cows, 7 
of which he is milking; a large number of hogs and chickens; and has 1,034 
acres of land on which are 16 tenant houses. A number of his white 
neighbors say concerning him: 

Prattville, Alabama, July 19, 1910. 
Dr. Booker T. Washington, 

Tuskegee, Alabama, 
Dear Sir: 

We, the undersigned citizens of Autauga County, take pleasure in saying that we 
have known John C. Thomas personally and in a business way for about seventeen years 
and during that time he has been very successful in a business way. 

We further state that we know him to be of high moral character, and that he is a 
hard working, industrious man and is considered by all of our citizens to be far above the 
average in intelligence. 

We also know that he has in his possession or under his control more than a thousand 
acres of land in this county; that the same is well improved and furnished with stock and 
cattle. 

As a Negro we class John C. Thomas among the foremost of his race and take pleas- 
ure in recommending him to his people. 

Very respectfully, 
P. E. Alexander, Attorn ey-at-Law; Z. Abney Registrar in Chancery; Joe A. Cham- 
bliss, Sheriff; Chas. Booth, Postmaster; I. W. Hagler, M. D, 

[16] 



Graduates and Former Students 

Darius H. Henry, '90, is one of the most prosperous farmers in Wilcox 
County, Alabama, where he owns a farm of 1,115 acres, well stocked with 
horses, cows, mules and hogs. He owns a well equipped ginnery, grist mill 
and saw mill. He was for some time the United States Demonstrator for 
Wilcox County. At the 1910 Commencement he gave $100 to his Alma 
Mater. The leading white citizens of his town and county send the follow- 
ing very complimentary testimonial: 

Dr. Booker T. Washington, 

Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. 

We, the undersigned white citizens of Coy and Wilcox County, do hereby testify to 
the good standing of D. H. Henry, a graduate of your school. His chief occupation is 
agriculture. He is strict in business and very successful, and has thereby accomplished 
much. He is polite, unassuming in his deportment, perfectly honest in his dealings and is 
without exception highly respected by all that know him. 

He is regarded as one of the foremost and law abiding citizens of his race. 
(Signed) 

Geo. E. Davis, W. D. Powe, J. M. McLeod, Merchant and Farmer, Coy; Wm. 
A. McLeod, Postmaster, Coy; J. C. Godbold, M. D.; F. A. Powe, Merchant and 
Farmer; N. M. Newell, Merchant and Farmer, Asahel; R. A. Newell, Merchant and 
Farmer, Asahel; S. D. Moore Sheriff; J. B. Holman, Jr., Clerk of Probate Court; E. 
W. Berry, Banker, Camden; Pat M. Donnelly, Clerk Circuit Court; Geo. C. Boltz, 
Postmaster, Camden; M. J. Bonner, Banker, Camden; C. E. Primm, Farmer, Coy; 
H. Van DeVoort, Tax Collector; B. M. Miller, Judge of 4th Judicial Circuit; J. N. 
Stanford, Probate Judge; S. L. Jones, Lawyer, Camden; S. D. Bloch, Camden. 

Macon County Farmers 

Macon County, Alabama, the county in which Tuskegee Institute is 
located, has a number of successful farmers who are graduates and former 
students of the school. Several of these are noted below: 

George Washington Pace, a former student has for twenty years farmed 
successfully in the southeastern part of the county, where he owns his place. 

Hattie E. Wommack, '03, is a teacher in the county. She also owns 
93 acres of land, and with her mother, does very successful farming. They 
have won several prizes at community fairs. 

J. W. Gilmer, a former student, has farmed for a number of years in 
the northern part of the county. He owns 465 acres of land. 

A. H. Adams, a former student, is a farmer in the county. He has 
forty acres of land. 

S. D. and William Flake are farmers near Tuskegee Institute. They 
own 72 acres of land. 

Dennis Upshaw, '95, owns one of the best farms and homes in Macon 
County. His farm and home have to a large extent been a model for his 
community, and have done a great deal toward inspiring the people to im- 

[17] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 

prove their homes and their farms. Mr. Upshaw is also a successful minis- 
ter and is a graduate of the Bible School Department of Tuskegee Insti- 
tute. 

William E. Burton, who graduated from the Bible School Department 
in 1909, is also successfully combining farming and preaching. He has 
recently bought 130 acres of land a few miles from Tuskegee Institute. He 
depends upon the farm for his living and is thus able "to preach without any 
reference to salary." 

Anthony Griffin, a former student, has for many years been a success- 
ful farmer and teacher in this county. He owns 160 acres of land. 

Isaac Simmons, another former student, has farmed for many years at 
Creek Stand. He owns 80 acres. 

Hector Goodwyn, a former student, farms near Cross Keys. He owns 
46 acres. 

Fred R. Parker, another former student, farms in this same commu- 
nity. 

James Simpson, a former student, owns and farms 160 acres of land in 
the northern part of the county. 

Reuben CoUins, is a successful farmer of Macon County. 

R. B. Potts, a former student, has for 29 years been a teacher and 
farmer. He was one of the first persons to go out from Tuskegee Institute. 
At the first place where he taught, he found the people did not own any 
land, or have a church building or schoolhouse. He assisted the people in 
securing these. In 1885 he organized a Farmers' Club. Its object was to 
assist the people in the community where he was working to own their 
homes, to take better care of their families, to educate their children, and 
to improve their farming. As an example, he settled there and bought forty 
acres of land, upon which he has resided and farmed ever since. He has a 
good home, cows and hogs. Has not been without milk and butter for ten 
years. He also has a good orchard, from which his wife last year put up 160 
jars and cans of fruit. 

John H. Phillips and Columbus Barrant, former students, are farming 
near Tuskegee Institute. They own respectively 40 and 37 acres. 

Perry R. Williams, a former student, is a carpenter and farmer. He 
owns 230 acres. 

S. D. Lumpkins a former student, who left the school in 1900, is a suc- 
cessful farmer in the western part of the county. He owns a good farm and 
has a comfortable home. 

Allen L. Burks, '00, has followed farming for eight years. In 1900 
he went to Africa to assist in the introduction of modern cotton growing 
in Togoland, for the German Government. On his return from Africa, he 

[18] 




THOMAS AlvlDEBSON, '98, A SUCCESSFUL PARMER OP MACON 
COUNTY, ALABAMA. PRODUCTS FROM HIS FARM. 



Graduates and Former Students 

engaged in farming near Tallassee, Alabama. He is now employed as man- 
ager of a large plantation in Macon County. 

Thomas Anderson, '98, owns 40 acres of land a few miles from Tuske- 
gee Institute, from which in 1909, he cleared $600. In addition to this 
land he owns property in Florida and Georgia, He writes the following in- 
teresting letter: 

Dear Principal Washington: 

Five years ago when I bought land in Macon Couuty, near Tuskegee Institute, I had 
nothing but a hard time, a good wife, and a two-year old boy. My credit, however, was 
good and I bought torty acres of land on time. By constant, patient toil and close econo- 
my, I have paid for the forty acres, and also for three G;ood mules, 3 cows, and $300 worth of 
farm implements. Although 1909 was an unfavorable crop year, with one mule I was able 
to raise more than $600 worth of produce on my farm. I was offered $45 per month to 
work for a gentleman in Florida, but I would not accept this because I feel that there are 
great things in store for me on my farm. 

(Signed) Thomas Anderson. 

James A. Merchant, a former student, is a successful farmer and teacher 
in the northern part of the county. He is a good example of the kind of 
persons that Tuskegee endeavors to send out into the rural communities. 
He is the leader of the people of his community in every sense. He has 
been instrumental in building a good schoolhouse in the community. He 
is president of the local Farmers' Conference, and has for the past two 
years conducted a three days' Agricultural School for the farmers of the 
community. 

John C. Calloway, '96, is a teacher and farmer in the southern part of 
the county. He is another example of the kind of teachers Tuskegee is 
sending into rural communities. He owns 100 acres of land and has a small 
store carrying a $SOO-stock. He has a part interest in a 42-horse-power gin 
and grist mill. He has been instrumental in building a good school for the 
people of his community and takes the lead in all movements for the com- 
munity's improvement. 

Frank R. and Dow L. Reid, popularly known as the Reid Brothers, 
own and operate one of the largest farms in the county. Frank, the elder 
brother, left the school in 1888, and Dow, the younger, in 1891. Before 
attending Tuskegee, they had lived upon a rented farm with their father, but 
after returning home they decided to buy a farm of their own. Although 
they had little or no money, they entered into an agreement to purchase 
320 acres at $5.50 per acre. Within a few years they had paid the whole 
amount, $1,760. They then bought another farm of 225 acres at $10 per 
acre. They now own 711 acres of the best land in the county. They use 
the latest improved farming implements, which include plows, mowers, rakes, 
harrows, self-binders, etc. They own 33 head of mules and horses, 70 head 
of cattle and 25 head of hogs. They own and operate a large cotton gin. 

[19] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 

Last year, in addition to their own cotton, they ginned over $30,000 worth 
for their neighbors. They operate a general merchandise store in which the 
community post office is located. They have eight tenant houses on their 
plantation. Frank lives in a very comfortable, well-furnished eight-room 
house. 

Owing largely to the influence of these two brothers, their community, 
Dawkins Crossroads, is one of the most prosperous in the county. The col- 
ored people here own 2,800 acres of land and control 8,000 acres under 
leases extending from five to twelve years. 

J. S. McBride, a former student of Tuskegee Institute, lives in this 
community. He owns 100 acres of land, 5 horses and mules and 14 head of 
cattle and hogs. 

Rigdon D, Harris, another former student of Tuskegee, lives here. He 
owns 700 acres of land and rents and sub-lets considerable more. He has 30 
head of mules and horses and a considerable number of cattle and hogs. 
Last year he raised 171 bales of cotton worth over $10,000.00. 

£. H. Gamlin, a former student, is a successful merchant and farmer 
at Tuskegee. He owns 200 acres of land. He farms a part and rents a 
part. He has recently established a chicken farm. He owns 10 head of 
horses and a number of hogs and cows. Last year he sold $200 worth of 
hogs. He also owns a house and three lots in Pensacola, Florida. In Tus- 
kegee he owns a house and three lots and 2 1-2 acres of land. For the lat- 
ter he has refused $2,000. His grocery store is one of the best in the town. 
He carries a $5,000 stock, and does each year from $15,000 to $20,000 
worth of business. 

A. J. Wilborn, '85, is one of the most successful of the Tuskegee grad- 
uates. He has been in the grocery business almost continuously since his 
graduation. In addition to being a merchant, he has also been a farmer on 
a large scale. He owns a number of plantations in the county, containing 
altogether 1,250 acres. He also owns a large two-story brick building on the 
main square of the town of Tuskegee, in which he conducts his grocery 
business, which amounts to from $11,000 to $15,000 per year. He owns 
one of the best residences in the town, and other houses and lots, and a half 
interest in four acres of land within the town limits. He is a trustee of 
Tuskegee Institute. 

William V. Chambliss, '90, is one of the most successful men who have 
gone" out from the Agricultural Department of Tuskegee. He owns 1,000 
acres of land in Macon County, and a comfortable home in the town of 
Tuskegee. In 1901 he took the management of the Southern Improve- 
ment Company, a philanthropic organization, designed to assist the Negroes 
to own farms. The company bought a little over 4,000 acres of very poor 
land in Macon County, Alabama. This land was offered to colored farmers 

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Graduates and Former Students 

in small lots on very reasonable terms. The farmers were given seven years 
to pay for their land, and the company built houses for them upon the land. 
The first year 14 farmers were induced to accept the Company's terms. 
One of them had a mule and a few tools. Everything had to be furnished 
the others. One of the farmers with a very large family owed a merchant, 
who had been advancing him, $348. Mr. Chambliss decided to assume this 
debt in the name of the Company, and give the farmer a chance to see 
what he could do towards paying for 80 acres of uncleared land. In four 
year's time, he had cleared his farm, paid for it and a five-room cottage, 
cared for his family, repaid the $348 with interest and received from the 
Company $215 in cash. This farmer has since bought forty acres more 
of land and is able to do his own advancing. This case is an example of 
the success that Mr. Chambliss has had in getting farmers who have never 
before been out of debt or owned an acre of land, to become prosperous 
land owners. The Company has built 70 cottages and between 450 and 
500 people are occupying them. About 1,500 of the 4,000 acres of land 
has been paid for. 

The Southern Improvement community is now one of the most pros- 
perous and contented communities to be found anywhere in the South. Mr. 
Chambliss has aided the people in having better churches, schoolhouses, 
preachers and teachers. The people are voluntarily contributing from $150 
to $200 each year for the education of their children. 

In 1908 it was found that there were 659 Negro property owners 
in Macon County; 421 of these were farm owners, their total holdings 
amounting to 55,976 acres. The greater part of this land has been pur- 
chased through the influence of Tuskegee Institute, and a considerable por- 
tion, as already indicated, is owned by graduates and former students of 
Tuskegee. 



[21] 



CHAPTER II. 
fVork in the Trades 

TUSKEGEE graduates are doing excellent work in teaching trades to 
Negro youths in the various schools of the South. One hundred and 
fifteen of them are thus engaged. Twenty-six are working in the 
Public Schools, and 89 in Industrial and Normal Schools. 

Teaching Trades in Public Schools 

An account of some of those who work in Public Schools follows: 
Odie B. Furye, '03, has since his graduation taught manual training 

in the Public Schools of Dallas, and San Antonio, Texas, and Little Rock, 

Arkansas. 

Sandford Richard Showes, '06, is the head of the Manual Training 
Department of the Covington, Kentucky, High School. During the sum- 
mer he teaches Manual Training in the Douglass Summer High School of 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Ernest D. Brown, '07, is instructor in brickmasonry in the schools of 
Middlesboro, Kentucky. The work so commended itself to the members 
of the Board of Education that they voluntarily raised his salary. 

William H. Blasengame, '06, teaches manual training in the High 
School at Fort Worth, Texas. 

William Henry Jenkins, '09, is in charge of the Manual Training De- 
partment of the Central High School, of Galveston, Texas. 

Percy L. Dorman, '97, has for nine years taught manual training in 
the High School at Fort Smith, Arkansas. During this time he has taught 
many of his boys the carpenter's trade, so that their wages have been raised 
from $1.50 per week to $2.50 per day. Mr. Dorman also carries on a gen- 
eral contracting business, using his pupils before and after school, on Satur- 
days, and during vacation. He has built with them and with other help, 
over a hundred homes in Fort Smith. He does all the brick and stone work, 
the wood work and the painting. He draws his own plans for buildings. 
His bank book shows that in five years he has paid out over $50,000 in 
wages and for material. He owns his own home, which cost about $1,500. 

George F. Rivers, '04, has charge of manual training in the Colum- 
bus, Georgia, City Schools. 

[22] 



Graduates and Former Students 

James B. Nesbitt, '99, is instructor in manual training in the Doug- 
lass High School, Kansas City, Missouri. 

Mrs. Elizabeth R. Taylor, '98, teaches domestic science in the Garri- 
rison Public School, Kansas City, Missouri. 

Dora E. Williams, '05, teaches domestic science and sewing in the 
M. W. Gibbs High School, at Little Rock, Arkansas. All the girls in the 
school, 241, are under her instruction for two years. 

Margaret E. Walker, '08, has been doing a successful work in domes- 
tic science in the Public Schools of Paris, Kentucky. In a recent lettter 
she said: "I have been teaching domestic science and sewing in the Pub- 
lic Schools of Paris, Kentucky for two terms. I teach it to the 6th, 7th 
and 8th grades, and in the first three years in the High School. During my 
first year here, only cooking was taught, but sewing has since been added. 
I try to make all my work practical, so that the girls can use both theory 
and practice in the poorest homes. I have been elected for the third term. 
In order to better help my pupils, I shall study during my vacation at the 
Hampton Institute Summer School." 

A number of the graduates and former students are doing industrial 
work under the auspices of "The Anna T. Jeanes Foundation for the Im- 
provement of Negro Rural Schools." 

Mamie L. Gray, '07, is carrying on work under the Jeanes Foundation 
near Carrolton, Alabama, vvhere she has charge of the industrial work in 
three schools. She teaches sewing, dressmaking and gardening. 

Sarah E. Powell, '05, works under the Jeanes Foundation at Ball 
Ground, Georgia. She writes as follows concerning her work; 

"In September, 1909, I was assigned by the Jeanes Fund to visit the rural schools in 
this section and to introduce some kind of industrial work. I have organized sewing classes 
which I visit at least twice a month. The people are getting interested in the work, and I 
think, will be willing soon to give more time to it. The schools in this section run three, 
four and five months. When I have time I organize school farms for the purpose of raising 
money to extend the school term. The Sewing Class at the Ball Ground School is doing 
splendid work. We make garments and send them to the nearby towns to be sold. Thus 
far, the work has given satisfaction. I am having my first-grade girls make quilts and sofa 
pillows. I do this because there are not enough machines for each one to use. 

(Signed) Sarah E. Powell. 

Mrs. Ella Belle McNeal, '06, is doing an excellent work for the Jeanes 
Foundation in Bullock County, Alabama. She describes her work thus: 
"The first three dqys I spend at my headquarter's school. On Thursdays 
and Fridays I visit four other schools. I arrange the work to suit conditions. 
At each school I have found it necessary to have the yards cleaned, the 
rooms scrubbed, broken window panes replaced and cloak hooks put up. I 
assist the teachers in conducting their lessons. I teach sewing and cooking. 
I give talks on cleanliness, fresh air, the use of water and home making. I 
have organized the women of each community for the study of better home 
conditions." 

[23] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 
Teaching Trades in Industrial and Normal Schools 

Cora B. Burke, '06, is successfully teaching domestic science at Lang- 
ston University, Langston, Oklahoma. 

Mary L. McCrary, '97, has for ten years been Superintendent of Girls' 
Industries at this same institution. 

Delia Lore Williams, '06, is doing a successful work in domestic science 
and sewing at Selma University, Selma, Alabama. She describes her work 
thus: "For three years I have had charge of the Millinery and Domestic 
Science Departments in Selma University. In the Millinery Department we 
had an enrollment of 38 girls, and in the Domestic Science Department the 
enrollment for the last school year was 212. I am very well pleased with my 
work here." 

Claudia M. Jones, '06, teaches dressmaking, basketry and cooking at 
Palmer Institute, Sedalia, North Carolina. 

Nannie Juanita, Coleman, '08, a very successful industrial teacher, is 
at present the head industrial teacher, at the Farmers' Improvement Society 
College, Ladonia, Texas. She gives the following description of her work, 
during the past year: "The Farmers' Improvement Society College is a very 
interesting place to work. I found every one ready to help and learn all I 
had for them. Our school is small, and, the girls, with my aid, do all the 
work. I have my industrial work very well systematized. Every girl is 
compelled to take cooking and sewing, and if she desires, basketry and bead 
work. Our school is poor and therefore is not able to buy all the material 
for use in our sewing-room. We, therefore try to use the things near us. Our 
baskets, hats, pin-trays and other little things, we make from shucks and 
long grass. The girls are interested in the work because it is new to them." 

John H. Michael, '92, is teaching carpentry and mechanical drawing at 
Knoxville College, Knoxville, Tennessee. He designed and supervised the 
construction of the Negro Building for the Appalachian Exposition held at 
Knoxville in the Autum of 1910. 

John W. Fentress, '06, is instructor in painting at the Agricultural and 
Mechanical College, Normal, Alabama. 

John L. Anderson, '07, is instructor in electrical engineering at the St. 
Paul Normal and Industrial School, Lawrenceville, Virginia. 

James R. Patton, '04, teaches blacksmithing at the West Virginia Col- 
ored Institute, Institute, West Virginia. Last year in addition to his regu- 
lar work, he ironed three farm wagons, and did custom horseshoeing, re- 
paired wagons and hay presses and made stonemasonry tools. The plumb- 
ing work of the school is under his direction. In this connection he did 
about $200 worth of work, and set up a steel frame water tank, 70 feet 
high, witfi a capacity of 20,000 gallons. 

[24] 



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Graduates and Former Students 

James M. Canty, '90, has for 19 years been superintendent of indus- 
tries at the West Virginia Colored Institute, West Virginia. The long 
number of years he has worked there is a testimonial of his worth. 

Alonzo J. Fields, '05, teaches carpentry at the Penn Industrial School, 
Frogmore, South Carolina. He, in connection with his regular instruction, 
has built up a large trade with the surrounding community. 

The Tuskegee graduates have been of great assistance in developing 
the Tuskegee Institute Department of Mechanical Industries. There are 
now working in this department: 

William A. Richardson,, '96, Assistant Director of Mechanical Indus- 
tries. 

Edward W. Cummings, '96, in charge of the Blacksmithing Division. 

John C. Jordan, '01, in charge of the Harnessmaking and Carriage 
Trimming Division. 

Mitchell D. Garner, '96, in charge of the Carpentry Repair Shop. 

James A. Bynes, '99, in charge of the Foundry. 

William L. Wilkinson, '01, in charge of the Tailor Shop, with John 
C. Moultrie, '07, as assistant. 

William F. Thompson, '00, in charge of Brickmasonry, with Paris P. 
Jones, '08, as assistant. 

William Pearson, '96, in charge of the Tinsmithing Division. 

Sarence H. Darden, '06, in charge of the Brickmaking Division. 

Michael B. Stevens, '92, assistant in Printing Division, and Jefiferson 
R. Pendleton, '07, assistant in Steam Engineering. 

W^orking at Trades 

The final test of what a school is doing in the training of its students 
is what they are able to do, when they go out in the world, along the lines 
of their training. The individuals who have received training in various 
trades and have gone out from Tuskegee and worked at their trades, have 
made good to a very marked degree. 

In this connection, 374 persons, 173 graduates and 201 former students 
have been considered. They were distributed in the trades as follows: 2 
bakers, 33 blacksmiths and wheelwrights, 5 bookkeepers, 56 brickmasons, 
1 cabinetmaker, 42 carpenters, 2 carriagemakers, 1 chauffeur, 1 cook, 1 
cooking demonstrator, 1 cotton classer, 5 in domestic service, 31 dress- 
makers, 3 stationary engineers, 8 electricians, 1 elevator operator, 4 fire- 
men, 9 harness-makers. 1 hostler, 5 janitors, 1 laundress, 3 laundrymen, 9 
machinists, 10 miners, 3 molders, 42 trained nurses, 11 painters, 6 plumbers, 
10 printers, 3 sawmill workers, 19 shoemakers, 26 tailors, 8 tinsmiths and 2 
wood turners. The following are a few of the individuals working as above: 

[25] 



Industrial Work, of Tuskegee 

Robert P. Phillips, a former student, has for 13 years followed the 
blacksmith's trade at Minter, Alabama. His average earnings per month is 
$75. 

George L. Rodgers, a former student, is earning $2 per day as a black- 
smith at Seguin, Texas. 

James M. Jones, another former student, is a blacksmith at Troy, Ala- 
bama. 

Thomas T. Hamilton, '08, receives $3.60 per day as a brickmason in 
Birmingham, Alabama. 

Joseph Jackson, of Beaufort, South Carolina, a former student, has 
worked at the brickmasonry trade four years, receiving from $3.50 to $4.00 
per day. When not working at this trade, he works at tinsmithing, which 
he also learned at Tuskegee, earning from $1.50 to $2.00 per day. 

Albert E. Adams, '05, has worked at the brickmasonry trade since 
graduation, at an average daily wage of $3.00. 

Robert J. Clark, a former student in brickmasonry, is now working at 
his trade in Savannah, Ga. He writes as follows: 

"I have constantly followed my trade, brickmasonry. I am laying brick on the 
largest guano plant ever under course of erection in Savannah. 

"I am working as a corner man. The contractor asked me to sign a contract to re- 
main with him until the building is completed, which testifies, I think, as to my worth. I 
signed the contract. I receive $5.00 per day for my work." 

D. S. Lowe, a former student, has for six years been working as a 
plasterer in Atlanta, Georgia, at an average wage of $3.50 per day. He has 
bought a house and lot in Gainesville, Georgia, and also one in College 
Park, Georgia. "Since leaving school," he says, "I have been very suc- 
cessful. I owe it to Tuskegee." 

Junius H. Stevens, '03, is a successful brickmason at Los Angeles, Cal- 
ifornia. In a recent letter, he gives an interesting account of his work. 
He says: 

"When I left Tuskegee, I was somewhat handicapped at my trade, bricklaying. I 
went at it for all I was worth and in seven years I have come from the little fellow who 
backs up behind the other men on the rough work to the "big man" who raises the pressed 
brick front corners on the building. I have raised my wages from $1.75 a day to $5.50. 
I have tried to put my money to good use. I bought a five-room house and 7 acres of 
land at Winchester, Texas, for $380.00. I own a vacant lot at one of the Los Angeles 
beaches worth $300.00, and ten acres of land in Fresno County, California, worth $1,000- 
.00. All of these properties are paid for except the Fresno County tract on which I owe 
/ess than $300.00. As a voucher for these statements, I refer you to the Chamber of Com- 
merce at Fresno, California. 

[26] 



Graduates and Former Students 

I have also helped to provide for my mother and father, and to pay for the education 
of two brothers and a sister in Tillotson College, Austin, Texas. I am proud to state 
that one of the boys graduated last month. I still retain a small bank account for emer- 
gencies. 

(Signed) Junius H. Stevens. 

Samuel Lacy, a former student, has worked at Uniontown, Alabama, 
at the carpenter's trade for a number of years. He earns $2.50 per day. 

Samuel William Mills, of Brewton, Alabama, has worked at the car- 
penter's trade for 13 years at an average wage per day of $2.50. He also 
deals in real estate as a side issue at which he makes $40.00 per month. 

M. M. Edwards, a former student, is a cotton classer at Selma, Ala- 
bama. During the cotton season he earns $3 to $4 per day. The remain- 
der of the year he works at the carpenter's trade. 

Lewis N. Spurlock, '05, earns $72 per month as a machinist at Peoria, 
Illinois. 

Chas. H. Spicer, a tormer student, is earning $120 per month as an 
electrical engineer at Andalusia, Alabama. 

Arthur Stewart Smith, a former student, who was voted a certificate in 
steam engineering at the last Commencement, is doing an excellent work 
in Atlanta, Georgia. He is a night engineer in the Century Building, 
which is one of the finest office buildings in the city. Its machinery equip- 
ments consist of a heating plant, a hydraulic elevator system and a refriger- 
ating plant. An examination of his engine room, engines and mechanical 
apparatus by an expert showed all to be in the best of order. Since he has 
been working in Atlanta, he has succeeded in buying a home and has fitted 
it up with all modern conveniences. 

Greene Timmons of Dolomite, Alabama, a former student, has been a 
miner for 28 years. He receives $2.00 per day. Each year he sends $10.00 
to Tuskegee to help pay the school's general expenses. He writes that he 
has some money in the bank. He has $600 loaned out at 8 per cent, inter- 
est. He has a lot in Birmingham, for which he refused $16,000.00 cash. 

John Hines and William Brantly, former students, learned the mould- 
er's trade at Tuskegee. They have worked at it for 13 years. They have 
worked for a considerable time for the Cahill Iron Works, Chattanooga, 
Tennessee. They are paid $3.00 per day. John Hines has the distinction 
of having made for this company the first iron enameled bath tub in the 
South. 

The President of the Cahill Iron Works says: 

Chattanooga, Tenn., July 13, 1910. 
Mr. Booker T. Washington, 

Tuskegee, Alabama. 

Dear Sir: 

We take pleasure in stating that John Hines has worked steadily in our foundry as a 

[27] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 

moulder for ten years, and we have taken occasion time and again to point him out to 
visitors to our Works as a graduate of your school and as an example of the good work we 
believe you are doing. 

He is capable, polite, sober and very industrious; in fact, we only wish we had forty 
or fifty more just like him. We have had graduates from your school to work for us at 
different times, and we have never had a bad one in the lot. 

Very respectfully yours, 

(Signed) The Cahill Iron Works, 

Per F. H. Caldwell, President. 

John H. Loyal, Dothan, Alabama, a former student, has worked at the 
painter's trade for four years. His average wages are $2.50 per day. 

William E. Pendleton, Guthrie, Oklahoma, a former student, is earn- 
ing $2.00 per day as painter. He is also an expert glazier and receives $5.00 
per day for this work. 

John H. Kelley, '05, is a printer in the National Baptist Publishing 
House at Nashville, Tenn. He receives $50.00 per month. 

William H. Hunter of Louisville, Kentucky, a former student, has 
worked at the shoemaker's trade for 7 years. His wages are $15.00 per 
week. 

William Bradley of Greenville, Florida, is earning $2.50 per day at the 
shoemakers trade. 

Jefiferson Russell, a former student, is working at the harness-maker's 
trade at Union Springs, Alabama. 

Luther Peck, a graduate in carriage-trimming in '09, and in harness- 
making, '10, is employed at the Montgomery Carriage Works, Montgom- 
ery, Alabama. He began work at $15.00 per week, and is giving good satis- 
faction as a carriage trimmer. Last year, during vacation, he was employed 
by the Dufiy Harness Factory, at Opelika, Alabama. 

Haywood Gyles, a former student in harness-making, is employed by a 
harness firm at Yoakum, Texas. He is doing good work and his wages are 
being steadily advanced. 

Conducting Businesses Connected JVith Some Trade 

One hundred and two graduates and former students are carrying on 
businesses in connection with trades. Five are architects, one is in the bakery 
business, eighteen are conducting blacksmithing and wheel-wrighting busi- 
nesses, eighteen are in the contracting and building business, one is in the 
electrical business, one in the florist business, eleven are milliners, five are in 
the printing business, eight in the shoemaking business, and two are in the 
tinsmithing business. 

[28] 




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Graduates and Former Students 

Verner W. Tandy, '05, of the firm of Tandy and Foster, is a success- 
ful architect in New York City. The Industrial Edition of "Tamany," 
July 2, 1910, speaks complimentary of his work. Among other things it 
said, 'The firm of Tandy and Foster have completed many beautiful resi- 
dences around New York." 

They are at present superintending the erection of St. Phillips Episco- 
pal Church and Parish House, West 134th Street and Seventh Avenue, at a 
cost of $200,000.00. They have received the award for the grounds and 
the building of the Lincoln Memorial Institute, near Louisville, Ky., where 
about $400,000 is to be spent, about $100,000 of which is now being ex- 
pended. They were successful in having their plans accepted for a $20,000 
stable at Riverside, New Jersey; a $20,000 school in Nanuet, N. Y., and 
another at Woodcliff, New Jersey. Altogether, Tandy and Foster will 
receive commissions this year on about $500,000 worth of work. 

Charles S. Bowman, '99, is a successful architect in Kansas City, 
Kansas. The accompanying cut indicates the kind of work he is doing. 

William Sidney Pittman, '97, is a successful architect in Washington, 
D. C. He designed the Negro Building for the Jamestown Exposition, the 
colored Y. M. C. A. Building in Washington, a colored public school of 
that city, the recently erected Milbank Agricultural Building at Tuskegee 
Institute, an auditorium and trades building for the Kentucky Colored State 
School at Frankfort, and four buildings for the Colored School of Durham, 
North Carolina. 

Caughey W. Roberts, '06, is in the bakery business at Boley, Oklaho- 
ma. During the past year his net profits were $1,200.00. 

William Z. McGill, a former student, runs a horseshoeing shop at 
Beaufort, South Carolina. His net earnings are from $3 to $4 per day. 

Lucius A. Banks, a former student in blacksmithing, and Richard 
Bright, 1900, are conducting a successful blacksmithing and wheelwright- 
ing shop at Anniston, Alabama. They do from $150 to $200 worth of work 
per month. Both of them own good houses. 

Stephen R. Bell, a former student, is running a blacksmith shop at York, 
Alabama. He has three helpers. He owns his home and other property. 

James G. Ball, a former student, is in the blacksmithing business at Tus- 
caloosa, Alabama. He is also in the drayage business. He does each year 
about $3,500 worth of business. He owns a house and lot in Tuscaloosa, 
valued at $4,000. 

William A. Thomas, a former student, who left Tuskegee in 1898, is 
in the blacksmithing business at Greensboro, Alabama. Mr. Thomas has 
made a number of useful inventions, the principal one of which is a fuel and 
smoke condenser. He owns three houses in Greensboro, and a house in 

[29] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 

Birmingham, Alabama. In addition to his blacksmithing business he con- 
ducts a junk shop. 

Phillip Knox, a former student, is in the blacksmith and wheelright busi- 
ness at Baton Rouge, Louisiana. He is doing well and has accumulated 
property, 

F. L. Jones, a former student, is in the blacksmithing business in At- 
lanta, Georgia. He recently sent the following letter: 
Dear Principal Washington: 

I left Tuskegee Institute in 1899. I have been struggling for eleven years to accom- 
plish something and am proud to make the following statement of what I am doing: I own 
real estate in Madison and East Point, Georgia, to the value of $2,600. I also have an 
account in the Atlanta National Bank. I do not owe a single penny. I enclose a small 
contribution toward the work of Tuskegee Institute. I hope to make a larger contribution 

next year. 

(Signed) F. L. Jones. 

Thomas H. Bynes, a former student, conducts a horseshoeing estab- 
lishment at Bainbridge, Georgia. He gives the following account of him- 
self since leaving Tuskegee: "After I left Tuskegee in February, 1901, I 
came to Macon, Georgia, and hired to a trainer of race horses to shoe the 
horses. In May, 1902, I opened business for myself in Bainbridge. I do 
nothing but shoe horses. I have one man employed as a helper at $1.25 
per day. My shop rent is $8.00 per month. I do about $210 worth of 
work per month. After paying my expenses, I have about $120 left. Since 
I came here 8 years ago, I have bought and paid for 4 houses. One of 
these I rent for $11, one for $8, and the other two for $5 each per month." 

Henry S. Bynes, '04, a brother of Thomas H. Bynes, is conducting a 
successful wheelwrighting and blacksmithing business, at Gibson, Georgia. 
He operates two buildings, one for blacksmithing and one for woodworking 
and painting. He has the leading buggy shop in the county. About 90 
per cent, of his customers are white. He gives the following description of 
his business: 
Dear Principal Washington: 

In reply to your kind letter, I am pleased to say that on the seventh of July, 1908, I 
arrived at this place with only $7.00 in my pocket, being entirely a stranger to the people. 
I had an interview with some of the leading white business nrten, who, when they learned 
I had finished my trade at Tuskegee, advised me to open business. 

I opened a small blacksmith and repair shop. The building was in quite a dilapi- 
dated state, so much so that I was forced to seek shelter in other neighboring houses, in 
times of rain and wind. I soon proved my efficiency as a buggy workman; and the con- 
stant demand for such work, forced me into better buildings and caused me to buy more 
and bettet shop tools and fixtures. 

On the first of January, 1910, my business took the name of the Bynes Buggy Works. 
My books show that 75 per cent, of my business during 1910 is that of buggy work. 
Through the medium of such journals as American Blacksmith and the Hub, I keep in 
touch with the best workmen. 

(Signed) H. S. Bynes. 

[30] 



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Graduates and Former Students 

The following testimonials from prominent white persons in his com- 
munity show the esteem in which he is held, and how they view his work: 

To Whom It May Concern: 

We the undersigned citizens of Glascock County, Georgia, know H. S. Bynes, 
and we can truthfully say that his work in his chosen profession, that of woodworkman, 
has been satisfactory to his customers, and his public and private character has been exem- 
plary since he has been with us. His exemplary character is worthy of emulation by the 
people of his race. Would that they all would follow it. 

(Signed) 

E. B. Rodgers, Attorney-at-Law; W. T. Kitchens, J. C. Newsome, Attorney-at- 
Law; John J. Peebles; Thomas A. Walden, Clerk Supreme Court. 

Robert T. Anderson, Fort Mitchell, Alabama, a former student, is con- 
ducting a wheelwright shop. He gives the following account of himself: "I 
left Tuskegee in 1901 and began at Montgomery, Alabama, in a carriage 
works as helper. After working there for a while I went to Pensacola, 
Florida, and worked in a carriage factory until April, 1909, when I came 
home and put up a small shop 16x14 feet. I started with $5.00 worth of 
tools. I got so much work that I had to double the size of the shop and 
buy between $75 and $80 worth of tools. I now do a general wheelwight- 
ing and blacksmithing and painting business. I am now doing my own 
striping and varnishing, but I will soon have to hire a helper for this part of 
the work. I am patronized by both white and colored persons. I am earn- 
ing $3.25 per day." 

Oliver N. Freeman, '06, Wilson, North Carolina, has worked at the 
brickmasonry trade since his graduation. He is at present doing a general 
contracting and brick engineering. His average earnings are about $90.00 
per month. 

Frank Cole, a former student, has for a number of years been a suc- 
cessful brickmason in Tuscaloosa, Alabama. As a foreman or as a contract- 
or, he has been connected with some of the largest jobs in that place. He 
is interested in a grocery store and owns a home worth $3,000.00. 

William T. Anderson, '09, Abingdon, Virginia, is doing job brick- 
masonry and contracting work. He earns from $18.00 to $20.00 per week. 

Samuel L. Morris of Boley, Oklahoma, a former student, is a con- 
tractor and builder. Among other things, he has established for the town 
of Boley a telephone exchange, and a lighting system, including generator, 
boiler, engine and other parts. 

David McKay, '06, is engaged in the electrical business in New Or- 
leanes, Louisiana. He wires buildings, installs bells, electric fans and other 
devices. He is regularly employed. His work is approved by the city in- 
spectors. He has made a reputation as a reliable and painstaking work- 
man. 

[31] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 

John L. Anderson, '07, who is an electrical engineer in Abingdon, Vir- 
ginia, was temporarily in charge of the Electrical Division at Tuskegee. 
Before this he worked regularly for a firm in Florida, and at the urgent 
request of its members, left Tuskegee and returned to Florida to work again 
for them. 

William E. Foster Pickett of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, a former student, 
has followed carpentry for eleven years. He is now a contractor and builder. 
He does about $11,000 worth of business per year. He also owns and oper- 
ates a two-horse dray wagon which earns from $21.00 to $24.00 per week. 
He has a good home worth about about $3,000.00. Prof. E. A. Smith of 
the University of Alabama, sends the following testimonial concerning Pick- 
ett: 

Mr. Booker T. Washington, 
Dear Sir: 

Knowing your wish to keep trace of your former students, I take pleasure in writing 
you concerning Foster Pickett who was once in your school. Pickett has done a good deal 
of work for me during the past six or eight years and he has always done it well. 

In fact he has done better cabinet work for me than any one else has done. I have 
always found himto be trustworthy and reliable in addition to being a first-rate workman, 
and if called upon for a recommendation, I should be glad to give him one. 

If your school turns out many men like Foster Pickett, it is certainly doing good 
work. 

Yours very truly, 

(Signed) Eugene A. Smith, 

State Geologist. 

John L. Webb, Yazoo City, Mississippi, a former student in carpentry, 
has been a contractor and builder for seven years. He makes an average of 
$100 per month. 

William A. Bostock, another former student, is a successful contractor 
and builder at Tuskegee, Alabama. He has been successful in work, and 
has accumulated some property. He owns a good home valued at $1,500 
and 92 acres of land worth $2,000. 

J. C. Williams is another former student who is a successful contractor 
and builder at Tuskegee. Associated with him as contractor in brick work, 
concrete and plastering, is Charles S. Lovette, 1900. They are busy the en- 
tire year. 

John H. Calloway, '92, Tuskegee, Alabama, has followed carpentry 
and contracting and building for 15 years. His average earnings are $75.00 
per month. 

Jailous Perdue of Montgomery, Alabama, a former student, has been a 
contractor and builder for 23 years. He gives the following account of his 
work: 

Montgomery, Alabama, June 12, 1910. 
Mr. Booker T. Washington, 
Pear Sir: 

I received your letter asking for information concerning my work since leaving school, 

[32] 



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Graduates akd Former Students 

For fifteen yeirs I auiited in erecting buildings at Tuskegee Institute. As you remember, 
I was assistant foreman in building the Chapel, Parker Cottage, Thomas Cottage, David- 
son Hall, Hamilton Cottage and the Principal's home. I was foreman in the building of 
the Library, Rockefeller Hall and the Academic Building. I assisted in the erection of 
White Memorial Building and the New Dining Hall. I had entire charge of the erection 
of the new Milbank Agricultural Building. 

I have been assistant foreman on some very large jobs in Montgomery, Alabama. I 
was assistant foreman in the erection of the Exchange Hotel (cost $150,000) and the Bell 
Building (cost $450,000). I was foreman in the erection of the First National Bank 
Building (cost $350,000). I worked on the State Capitol, the Montgomery County Court 
House and the $175,000 First Baptist Church building. I own a good home which cost 
me $1,400. I drew the plans myself, and had Tuskegee trained men to build it. I own 
eight lots in Montgomery. 

I left school in 1891 because I was dull in my literary studies. I decided that it 
would be better for me to quit school and work at my trade and help to educate my sisters. 
My brother, A. C. Perdue, who graduated from Tuskegee the same year that I left, and 
myself, sent three of our sisters to Tuskegee. Two of them remained three years and one 
four years. Brother and I built a nice home for our father at Auburn, Alabama, at a cost 
of $600.00. 

I am glad to say that I have never, in the years that I have been out from Tuskegee, 
found any trouble in getting work at my trade. 

Yours truly, 

(Signed) Jailous Perdue. 

Augustus C. Perdue, '91, is one of the leading contractors and builders 
at Muskogee, Oklahoma. He has followed this continuously since gradua- 
tion. He owns property in Muskogee, Oklahoma, and in Montgomery, 
Alabama. 

James R. Banks, '06, Tallahassee, Florida, gives the following descrip- 
tion of his work during the past year: "A part of the year I was employed 
as Superintendent of Masonry at the Industrial College at Okolona, Missis- 
sippi. While there, I built a three-story brick building 90 feet by 52 feet. 
A part of last year I worked for wages. The greater part of the year I did 
contracting on a small scale. At the present time I am employed by a con- 
structing firm which is building a $90,000 building for the Florida Female 
College at this place. I am only working on this job to keep from loafing 
for a few weeks. My partner and I have a large contract at Spring Hill, 
Florida, to do the brick work for a large sawmill which is being erected 
there. The only time I have had any difficulty in getting work was during 
the panic in 1907." 

Frank A. McMurray of Montgomery, Alabama, who left Tuskegee 
Institute in 1898, worked at the carpenter's trade from that time until 1904, 
when he entered the grocery business, in which he is doing about 
$6,(XX) worth of business each year. He owns a combined store and resi- 

[33] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegek 

dence worth about $4,000.00. White business men of Montgomery send 
the following testimonials concerning him: 

To Whom It May Concern: 

The bearer, F. A. McMurray, has had several business transactions with me which 
were always satisfactory. He was prompt in his payments and proved himself worthy o' 

credit. 

(Signed) J. Levystein, Tailor and Clothier. 

To Whom It May Concern: 

We take pleasure in recommending the bearer, Frank A. McMurray. We began 
business with him in a very modest way several years ago, and we are happy to state that 
the account is now of large proportions and satisfactory to us. We commend him to the 
business world as a man of superior character and feel sure he would not incur any obliga- 
tions which he did not know he could promptly meet. He has always been punctual in his 
dealings with us, and we predict for him a successful business career. 
Yours truly, 

(Signed) J. Loeb Grocery Company, 

by M. B. Seligman, Secretary and Treasurer. 
(Signed) Mayer & Mohr Cigar Company, 

by E. Mayer, President. 

C. A. Lightfoot, '07, is in the painting business at Tuskegee. He has 
worked at his trade for ten years. He gets all the work he can do. He 
owns a farm of 20 acres which he works during his odd time. 

John J. Owens of Chattanooga, Tennessee, a former student, gets all 
the work that he can do as a painting contractor. He has followed this 
trade for 6 years, and his earnings are $20 per week. The accompanying tes- 
timonials are from persons with whom he has done business: 

Mr. Booker T. Washington: 

We have known John Owens for some time and have found him to be an honest and 
hard working man, as he has bought all of his wall paper from us, we think that he is 
capable of doing painting or paper hanging. 

Youts very truly, 
(Signed) T. H. Payne & Co. 

Books, Stationery and Wall Paper. 
Mr. Booker T. Washington, 

President Tuskegee Institute, 

Tuskegee, Alabama. 
Dear Sir: 

I have known John J. Owens for two years, and he has been doing practically all my 
painting, etc., during that period. I have always found him to be a hard working, faith- 
ful and conscientious man. His work has always been good. 

Yours very truly, 
(Signed) H. F. Bohr, General Freight Agent, 

Chattanooga, Southern Railroad. 

Charles Weir, '05, is a contractor and builder at Nassua in the Bahama 
Islands. He has worked at bricklaying either for wages or by contract, since 

[34] 



Graduates and Former Students 

leaving Tuskegee Institute. The following letter concerning him was 
received from the Bahama Lumber Company: 

Wilson City, Abaco, The Bahamas, 

April 6, 1909. 
Dr. Booker T. Washingtion: 

The Bahama Lumber Company is constructing quite an extensive general logging 
and sawmill plant, the expenditure thus far reaching a million dollars. Through the 
recommendation of a personal friend of the writer, we employed for the construction of the 
brick work, a man by the name of Charles H. Weir who we understand learned his trade 
at your institution. The brick work in and about a modern sawmill plant requires a man 
of exceptional ability in the construction of birner and arches in the boilers, and as the 
knawledge of the ground work obtained by Mr. Weir was learned at your institution, we 
wish to commend you very highly on the thoroughness of your instructors if the ability dis- 
played by Mr. Weir is a fair sample of the students you turn out from your institution. 

He is not only a first-class'workman, but is very energetic in religious work, and his 
influence among the colored people here has done much good, and we regret exceedingly 
that we have not wojk enough to give him steady employment at the wages he is capable of 
commanding. You have so many students that it is hard to keep track of them, but we 
wish to state that it is our firm belief that if you keep in touch with this man, giving him 
such assistance as you can he will not only prove to be a credit to your institution, but will 
be the means of doing a great work among the colored people in lifting them to a higher 

moral and social sphere. 

Yours truly, 

(Signed) George Quayle, General Manager, 

The Bahama Lumber Co. 

Robert H. McClasky, '09, is conducting a successful shoemaking bus- 
iness in Bloomfield, Kentucky. He opened the shop on June 18, 1909. 
At the end of the year, his books showed $378.35 worth of business done. 
His expense and cost of running the business averaged $30.00 per month. 
This enabled him to save $180 for the first six months, in his business. 

H. J. Bailey, a former student, is running a shoemaking business in 
Montgomery, Alabama. He does an average of $100 worth of business per 
month, and employs two assistants. 

Buford C. Colson, another former student, is running a shoe shop in 
Montgomery, Alabama. He does each year about $1,500 worth of business. 

Thomas J. Bush, '99, is conducting a shoemaking business at Macon, 
Georgia. 

Oscar Moody, a former students has conducted a shoemaking business 
at Waycross, Georgia, since 1907. He gives the following itemized state- 
ment of his business: 



Year 


Cash 


Expense 


Profit 


1907 


$600 00 


$325 00 


$275 00 


1908 


836 00 


300 04 


536 96 


1909 


952 10 


341 23 


610 87 


1910 








January 


82 IS 


32 42 


49 73 


February 


102 87 


43 82 


59 05 


March 


106 10 


38 09 


68 01 


Monthly 


average profit $58.83. 







[35] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegeb 

Prominent white citizens of Waycross send the following testimonial 
concerning Mr. Moody: 

Waycrois, Ctl., July 18, 1910. 
To Whom It May Concern: 

This is to certify that yie have known Oscar Moody both before taking his trade 
(shoemaking and general repair) at Tuskcgee Normal and Industrial Institute, and since 
he has left that institution. We regard him as an exceptionally capable workman. He i* 
a man of good strong moral character, industrious and resourceful. His strict attention to 
his business has won for him the confidence of a large number of customers. 
(Signed) 

J. J. Wilbers, M. D.; R. A. McCrarie, Dist. Supt., A. C. L. Ry. ;J. E. Dickens, 
Shoe Merchant; H. C. Seamy, Shoe Merchant; A.M. Knight, J. W. Colly, City Mar- 
shall; C. E. Murphy, Postmaster; John M. Cox, Mayor; W. J. Pamplin, Matter 
Mechanic. A. C. L. Ry. 

Samuel L. Burlong, a former student has, since 1906, conducted a 
shoemaking business in Birmingham, Alabama. He is doing well and is av- 
eraging in his business about $3 per day. In the third week of April, 1910, 
he did $42.50 worth of business at an expense of $15. In the last week of 
April, he did $30 worth of business at an expense of $10. The following 
are interesting testimonials concerning Mr. Burlong: 

Birmingham, Ala., July 25, 1910. 
To Whom It May Concern: 

This is to certify that we have known the bearer, Samuel L. Burlong, for over three 
years and that all business transactions between us have proved of a very satisfactory na- 
ture. We will not hesitate in recommending him to any one who would desire a compe- 
tent and industrious young man in the capacity of his trade. 
Yours respectfully, 

(Signed) Birmingham Leather Company, 

Thos. A. Gambino, General Mgr. 

Dr. Booker T. Washington, 

Tuskegee, Alabama. 
Dear Sir:— 

Regardingthe character of S. L. Burlong, would state that I have known him for 
three or four years in a business way. He has run an account with me at my store, and I 
have also given him work. What has appealed to me more than anything else has been 
the care that he has taken of his mother. The work that he has done for me has been in a 
workmanlike and conscientious manner. I believe he is worthy of your consideration. 

Yours truly, 

C. T. Randall, Merchant. 

Lovelace O'Neal, a former student, is conducting a harness shop at 
Troy, Alabama. 

Emery Cleveland, another former student, is conducting a harness busi- 
ness at Greensboro, Alabama. 

Eugene Dibbrell, a former student, conducts a harness shop at Elmore, 
Georgia. 

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Henry V. Stevens, who was voted a certificate in harness-making in 
1900, conducts a good harness business in Troy, Alabama. In connection 
with his harness-making he carries on carriage trimming and shoemaking. 
He owns a good home and other property. 

The Probate Judge of Pike County (where Troy is situated) says: 

To Whom It May Concern: 

I have known H. V. Stevens for the past five years, and I can say that he has con- 
ducted himself in a high-toned and gentlemanly manner since he came here, is well thought 
of by both white and colored and has the respect of all. I consider him one of the best 
harness-makers that has ever been in this part of the state. He certainly is master of his 
profession and has the confidence and respect of all. 

(Signed) A. C. Edmondson, Judge of Probates. 

The President of the First National Bank of Troy gives the following 
recommendation : 
To Whom It May Concern: 

It affords me pleasure to state that H. V. Stevens of this city is an upright man. I 
have had considerable dealings with him. He is worthy of the confidence of the business 
public; he is a harness-maker by trade and his work is of the very highest type. He has 
not only served the public well in his trade but has made a reputation for fair dealing 
and has the confidence of the citizens of this city. 

Respectfully, 

(Signed) J. S. Carroll, President. 

Samuel Dudley, a former student, conducts a successful harness shop 
at Muskogee, Oklahoma. His shop is well equipped with modern 
machinery. He employs three helpers. 

James Alexander Page, a former student, has for 9 years been a mer- 
chant tailor in Eudora, Arkansas. Last year his profits from the tailoring 
business were about $1,000. He also runs a brickyard, from which he 
derives considerable profit. 

Arthur Richardson, who received a certificate in tailoring in 1905, is 
conducting a successful tailoring business at Evansville, Wisconsin. He em- 
ploys regularly two or three assistants. He owns property in Evansville and 
Madison, Wisconsin. 

James T. Hall, a former student, who left Tuskegee in 1904, is con- 
ducting a tailoring establishment at Anniston, Alabama. He also has a part 
interest in a dressmaking establishment which is run in connection with his 
business as a tailor. He owns a five-room house and some other city prop- 
erty. 

Daniel R. and Joseph G. Dorsey, former students, are running a tailor 
shop in Montgomery, Alabama. Their business per annum amounts to 
about $2,500.00. 

Alfred V. Gardner, '04, is a successful tailor at Selma, Alabama. He 
regularly employs two assistants. He owns 160 acres of land at Burnsville, 

[37] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 

Alabama, 6 acres at Cahaba, Alabama, and an interest in three hpuses and 
lots in Selma. 

H, B. Kenan, a former student, is also a successful tailor, and is the 
senior member of the H. B. Kenan Tailoring Co., Selma, Alabama. He 
employs 6 assistants and does about $10,000 worth of business each year. 
His patronage is almost exclusively white. 

The Mabry Brothers, R. T. '98, and C. T. '01, conduct a large tailor- 
ing establishment at Birmingham, Alabama. 

Robert Pleasant, a former student, has for 6 years conducted a tailoring 
business at Atlanta, Georgia. He is a member of the firm of Mordicue and 
Pleasant, Merchant Tailors. 

Jefferson D. Crum, '06, is running a tailor shop at Carbon Hill, Ala- 
bama. He employs an assistant and is doing well. His average earnings 
are $3.00 per day. 

James Andrew Terry, Columbia, Tennessee, a former student, has fol- 
lowed the tailoring trade for seven years. He conducts his own business 
and is making $5.00 per day. 

Joseph O. Dudley is in the tailoring business at Cuero, Texas. He 
writes as follows: 

Dear Principal Washington: 

Some time ago I wrote you asking you to send me two tailors, but since that time I 
have got them. Should I need any more workmen, I shall call upon you. I left Tuske- 
gee Institute, June S, 1909, after spending three years in the Tailoring Division. I learned 
enough in that time to enable me do a fine business. I do my own drafting and cutting 
and making. I employ one trousers maker, one coat maker and two men for cleaning and 
pressing. I am doing a very fine business. 

(Signed) Joseph O. Dudley. 

James M. Chisholm, '96, for twelve years conducted a tailor shop at 
Eufaula, Alabama. His business each year amounted to about $5,000.00. 
He has recently moved to Birmingham and become a member of the firm of 
B. A. Jones & Co., Merchant Tailors. 

James H. Kemp, '01, has for eight years conducted a tailoring business 
at Dora, Alabama. His earnings amount to between $1,500.00 and $2,000- 
.00 each year. He owns over $ 2,000.00 worth of real estate. 

The following very complimentary testimonials show the esteem in 
which he is held in his home town: 

Booker T. Washington, 

Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. 
Dear Sir: 

It gives us pleasure to write you relative to the character and success of one of your 
former students, James H. Kemp, whom we have known for the past four years, and who 
has been under our observation daily. 

He is now conducting a tailoring business and has been since he left school. He is 

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meeting with a considerable degree of success — getting all the business that he and assist- 
ants can conveniently handle — a fact which is largely due to his skill and ability in dis- 
charging his duties. He is very punctual at his work, courteous to his customers and thor- 
oughly reliable. 

He enjoys the confidence and respect of both races and attends strictly to his own busi- 
ness. He is a leader among his race and a fellow of exceptional business qualifications. 

Very truly yours, 

(Signed) C. I. Jones, Cashier. 

Dora, Alabama, August 4, 1910. 
To Whom It May Concern, Greeting: 

We are very glad to have the pleasure of testifying as to the ability as tailor, his 
character and the general bearing of James H. Kemp. We have known him ever 
since he was a boy and he has always conducted himself in the very best manner. 

As regards his ability as a tailor, which profession he learned at the Colored School 
at Tuskegee, we consider him one of the very best in his profession. We have had him to 
do a great deal of tailoring for us and it has always proven entirely satisfactory. 

We regard him as one of the best men of his race at this place and think he has done 
a great deal of good in the uplifting of his own race here. 

Yours very truly. Palmer Mercantile Co., 

(Signed) Linn Palmer, Secretary and Treasurer. 

W. T. Adams, a former student, has for 25 years conducted a tinsmith- 
ing and plumbing business at Tuskegee, Alabama. He also handles in ad- 
dition to his tinsmithing and plumbing fixtures, hardware and paints. He 
is an all around workman, and makes a specialty of manufacturing syrup 
evaporators. 

John W. Clark, '00, has for a number of years conducted a successful 
tinsmithing business in Apalachicola, Florida. 

A number of women graduates and former students are carrying on 
business connected with trades. 

Maude May Stallworth, '09 is a dressmaker at Montgomery, Alabama. 
She is making $9.00 per week. 

Lula Jeannette Kimbrough, a former student, has for ten years been 
a dressmaker and tailoress at Columbus, Georgia. She is earning from 
$12.00 to $15.00 per week. 

Birdie Ruth Tubbs, a former student, has followed dressmaking and 
rriillinery for five years. She makes from $9.00 to $15.00 per week. 

Mrs. Elmira Turner Chapman, '98, has for several years operated a 
clothes cleaning and pressing business at Eufaula, Alabama. With her earn- 
ings she has bought a good four-room house worth $900.00. 

Mrs. Maggie Foster Jones, a former student, has worked at the dress- 
making trade for twelve years. She is now conducting a successful business 
at Asheville, North Carolina. She is making about $15.00 per week. She 
is public spirited and has organized a Girls' Industrial Club as an auxiliary 
to the Colored Y. M. C. A. of Asheville. Through this club in one year 
132 places of employment were secured. She established in 1909 the "Fos- 

[39] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 

ter-Jones" gold medal to be given each year to the girl in Tuskegee Insti- 
tute who is the most competent all-around seamstress and dressmaker. 

There are also a considerable number of graduates and former students 
who are engaged in business not directly connected with any trade. 

James A. Armstrong, a former student, is in the real estate and insur- 
ance business in Washington, D. C. 

Richard Joseph Hill, '00, is a real estate dealer in Beggs, Oklahoma. 
He also runs a farm of his own. 

Wiley James Harris, a former student, is conducting a real estate busi- 
ness in Montgomery, Alabama. 

Notihle B. Smith, '97, is conducting a real estate and insurance busi- 
ness in Birmingham, Alabama. His average earnings are about $185 per 
month. He is accumulating property. 

James R. Knox, '09, is cashier of the Safety Banking and Realty Com- 
pany, Mobile, Alabama. He also owns a half interest in an undertaking 
establishment. 

W. W. Greene, '03, is paying teller for the Penny Savings Bank, Bir- 
mingham, Alabama. 

William M. Warren, '02, Mound Bayou, Mississippi, is assistant 
cashier of the Bank of Mound Bayou. 

Several graduates are conducting drug stores. 

William Z. Payne, a former student, is running a drug store at Mcre- 
dian, Mississippi. 

Alexander G. Allen, a former student, is a physician and druggist at 
Union Springs, Alabama. His income is about $200 per month. 

Samuel P. Foreman, '94, is conducting a drug store at Anniston, Ala- 
bama. 

David Lee Johnson, '89, is a physician and druggist in Birmingham, 
Alabama. His income from both sources amounts to about $8,000 a year. 
He owns a home valued at $5,000. 

Eugene Ayers, '08, in connection with his brother, conducts a general 
store at Meridian, Oklahoma. They own their own building and last year 
sold over $5,000 worth of goods. 

William L. Peterson, a former student, conducts a combined grocery 
and restaurant at Opelika, Alabama. He does between $500 and $600 
worth of business per month. 

Isham Hartfield, a former student, is in the restaurant business at 
Vicksburg, Mississippi. He owns a home valued at $2,000. 

A. J. Wood, '87, is one of the leading grocers in Benton, Alabama. 
He has conducted a grocery business in this place for twenty years. 

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CHAPTER III. 
Work of Trained Nurses 

IN 1892 Nurse Training was established at Tuskcgee Institute in order 
that young colored women might be trained to render efficient service as 
trained nurses. Since that time 60 graduates have gone out from this 
department. There has also been quite a number who, although not grad- 
uating, have received sufficient training to do good work as nurses. 

A few young men have also taken nurse training. The most of these 
have later attended medical schools and become physicians. 

Frank B. Adair, '05, is a practicing physician in England, Arkansas. 

Curry E. Thompson, '03, is a practising physician in Ensley, Alabama. 

B. H. Lawrence, '03, has passed the examination before the medical 
board of the state of Maryland and is practising in that state. 

John R. Hawkins, 'OS, has just graduated from the Meharry Medical 
College, Nashville, Tennessee, and has successfully passed the medical ex- 
amination in the state of Georgia. 

Hezekiah Hurston, '07, is now attending the Meharry Medical Col- 
lege; Nashville, Tennessee. 

R. G. Bruce, '08, is attending the Northwestern University Medical 
School, Chicago, Illinois. 

Russell H. Flemming, '02, has for the past seven years been working in 
the United States Hospital Corps, principally in the Philippines. He is now 
stationed at Manila. 

The young women who have gone out from the Nurse Training De- 
partment have rendered very valuable service in ministering to the sick. 
They have also been of great serv'ce to their own people by teaching them 
how to observe the laws of health and sanitation. 

A brief account will now be given of some of these nurses. 

Mrs. Malinda Kirkpatrick Russell, '06, is Superintendent of the Lincoln 
Hospital, Indianapolis, Indiana. 

Ruby L. Washington, '02, has nursed successfully for a number of years 
at Pensacola, Florida. 

Mrs. Lula M. Johnson Crawford, '07, has for a number of years done 
private nursing in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania. 

Pauline Dickens, who graduated frcm the Academic Department of 
Tuskegee Institute in 1904, after teaching for five years is now taking nurse 
training and is in the senior class of the Nurse Training Department. She 
has already done successful nursing. 

[41] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 

The following is from one of her patrons in whose family she nursed at 
Union Springs, Alabama: 

To Whom It May Concern: 

PauHne Dickens has been in my home nursing Scarlet Fever for some time. She is 
a competent, industrious nurse and has given perfect satisfaction to the physician and to my 
wife. I take pleasure in recommending her. 

(Signed) J. A. Cook. 

The Superintendent of the hospital at Griffin, Georgia, who is white, 
also writes the following commendation concerning Miss Dickens: 

Griffin, Georgia, July IS, 1910. 
Dr. Booker T. Washington, 

Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. 
Dear Sir: 

I take pleasure in writing you of one of your pupil nurses — Pauline Dickens. She 
has helped me out on one or more occasions and given perfect satisfaction. 

Very respectfully, 

(Signed) Angela V. Campbell, 

Superintendent, Griffin Hospital. 

Mrs. Dora Lindsay Harrison, who lacked a few months of graduating 
from the Nurse Training Department, has done very successful private nurs- 
ing in Washington, D. C. 

Lena Jackson a former student in nurse training is doing good work as 
a trained nurse in Atlanta, Georgia. She is earning, from $18 to $20.00 
per week and keeps busy all the time. 

Mrs. Lilla E Douglass Johnson, '04, until her marriage was a success- 
ful private nurse in Macon, Georgia. 

Mrs. Edith Bradley Mayfield, a former student in nurse training, until 
her marriage had charge of Hale Infirmary, Montgomery, Alabama. 

Mrs. Martha E. Jackson Huston, '08, was, until her marriage, a private 
nurse in Macon, Georgia. 

Mrs. Margaret Greenlee Smith. '01, was for eight years a very success- 
ful nurse at Asheville, North Carolina. She writes the following concern- 
ing her work there: 

Dear Principal Washington: 

It is with pleasure that I tell you about my work since leaving Tuskegee. I have 
been following the profession acquired while there — trained nursing, and I have been very 
successful. I have worked in a sanitarium at Asheville, North Carolina, my home, and I 
have tried to put in practice the many lessons learned at Tuskegee of saving what I earned; 
so I purchased a little cottage with my earnings. 

I nursed in Asheville regularly from June, 1902 until April 23rd, 1910, at which 
time I married and moved to New York. 

Yours very gratefully, 

Mrs. Margaret Greenlee Smith. 

[42] 



GRAHyATES AND FORMER STUDENTS 

Petra Pinn, '06, soon after her graduation, took charge of the Hale 
Infirmary in Montgomery, Alabama, and remained there until two years ago, 
when she was called to Louisville, Kentucky, to be Superintendent of 
Nurses at the Red Cross Sanitarium. She is unusually successful in her 
work. 

Mary L. Johnson, '96, is doing private nursing in Chicago. She is con- 
stantly employed and is receiving good wages for her work. 

Mary Ellen Vaughn, '00, has since her graduation been working suc- 
cessfully as a trained nurse in Montgomery, Alabama. During her spare 
time she assists her brother in running a grocery store. She has accumu- 
lated property. 

Euphemia Davis, '99, since leaving Tuskegee, has" worked in Selma, 
and Birmingham, Alabama, and Moreland, Mississippi. For several years 
she has been nursing continuously in Montgomery, Alabama. Her average 
wages are $21.00 per week. 

Mildred Clark, a former student in Nurse Training is doing good work 
as a nurse at Auburn, Alabama. One of her patrons writes: 

Auburn, Alabama, September 22, 1910. 
Dr. Booker T. Washington: 

Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. 
I want to say a few words, Dr. Washington, to express my appreciation ot the good 
work you are doing in your training school for nurses. 

If Mildred Clark measures the standard which you set no praise can be too high (or 
ihe good work which you are performing. She was present as a nurse in my family for 
several weeks during the summer just passed and her services were satisfactory in the high- 
est degree. She is absolutely faithful and untiring in the sick room. Her watchful care, 
quiet manner, and patient ministrations are soothing to the patient and contributes to her 
success as a nurse. 

She never becomes in the least impatient, but on the contrary is unceasingly attentive 
to the smallest wish of the patient. 

Too much cannot be said of her patient endurance. Added to all this she is intelli- 
gent and good. 

Yours truly, 

(Signed) C. L. Hare. 

Ora Frances Porter, '05,, since her ;gradu,ation has worked continuously 
as a trained nurse at her home, Bowling Green, Kentucky. Her wages are 
$3.00 per day. 

Bessie Lee Mason, '06, is a trained nurse in Bethany, Nebraska. She 
is earning $15.00 per week. 

Mary Elizabeth Critteadon, '03, has for seven years followed trained nurs- 
ing in Salisbury, North Carolina. She earns from $15.00 to $21.00 per 

week. ^ 

Anna E. Cook, '09, has be«n unusiially successful as a nurse in Tus- 
kegee, Alabama. Before receiving her diploma, she was in constant demand 

[43] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 

for outside cases, and before her graduation, she was engaged to do the 
work for the two leading physicians of the town Every one for whom she 
has worked speaks very highly of her. Two of her patients send the follow- 
ing letters of commendation: 

Tuskegee, Alabama. 
This is to certify that Anna E. Cook, was in my service twice and gave me perfect 
satisfaction. She is strictly honest and works faithfully and willingly. She loves her work, 
and therefore makes a success. She is in my judgment, thoroughly competent to nurse the 
most serious cases. 

(Signed) Mrs. J. N. Roberts. 
To Any One Whom It May Concern: 

I heartily recommend Anna E. Cook as a Trained Nurse. She has been tried in 
many cases in our town of Tuskegee. Besides being a good nurse in every sense of the 
word I believe her to be a good Christian woman, ready to do any good she can. 
She is intelligent, mild, gentle, and in every way a desirable nurse. 
I most heartily recommend her to all good people. 

(Signed) Mrs. Peter Freer. 

Miss Cook has just removed to Berkeley, California. Immediately aft- 
er arriving there, she secured work at $18.00 per week. 

Augusta V. Crosby, '94, has been for several years Superintendent of 
Nurse Training at the Voorhees Industrial School, Denmark, South Caro- 
lina. 

Jeannette Ruby Jones, '07, does trained nursing at Hot Springs, Ar- 
kansas. She works both in private cases and in hospitals. She receives 
from $20.00 to $35.00 per week. When not engaged in nursing, she does 
sewing, at which she earns from $7 to $10 per week. 

Mrs. Baskins Barr Harris, '91, was for several years one of the most suc- 
cessful nurses in Los Angeles, California. Out of her earnings she was 
able to purchase a beautiful home and to support her mother and son. 

Anliza Rudolph, '05, is doing well as a private nurse at Montgomery 
Alabama. She keeps busy all the time and earns from $18 to $21 per 
week. 

Zula C. Richardson, '03, has been nursing for 6 years. She is now at 
Hot Springs, Arkansas, and is earning from $15 to $25 per week. 

Mrs. Lucy R. James, '05, has done the most remarkable work of any 
of the Tuskegee graduate nurses. After graduating, she nursed success- 
fully in Florida, Alabama, Illinois and finally in Cleveland, Ohio, where in 
addition to her regular work as nurse she devoted a great deal of time to 
working among the colored people of the Cleveland slums. This work at- 
tracted attention, and Dr. Sutton, one of the white ministers of the city, 
preached several sermons on her work among the colored people. Mrs. 
James asked to be appointed as a visiting nurse among the colored people. 
Because she was the first and only colored nurse who had ever applied for 

[44] 




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Graduates and Former Students 

this position, she experienced much difficulty in securing it. "After much 
personal solicitation she received the co-operation of the Business Men's 
League of the city and of Dr. Ormsby, one of the leading white physicians, 
his recommendation being given after Mrs, James had successfully nursed 
one of his patients." Mrs. James was finally appointed, but was compelled 
to work five months without a salary. Her subsequent work justified the 
wisdom of her appointment. In two months she made a thousand calls. 
Not all of her work is at the bedside but a great deal of it is investigating 
conditions. At one place, she found a man and his wife and two babies 
living in a coal shed. She succeeded in getting the man a position. He 
saved his money and took good care of his family. Mrs. James is greatly as- 
sisted in her work by being a probation officer of the Juvenile Court. 
Through this agency she is able to rescue many young girls from ruin and restore 
them to their parents. In one home she found a family of seven. The moth- 
er was leading a rather loose life. Mrs. James talked with her about the ex- 
ample that she was setting before her five little children and was able to 
make an impression upon both her and her husband. Through this family 
she was able to influence many homes in this vicinity. 

In another home she found that nine men assembled there regularly to 
gamble. From here she was able to rescue three young girls from a very 
bad environment, and finally to suppress the gambling, compelling the men 
either to reform or to leave the city. 

She has charge of the medical side of the Wade Day Nursery, where 
from 70 to 100 children are handled each day. Mrs. James, with much dif- 
ficulty, established a club room, where she carries on various kinds of work. 
There is a reading room connected with the club. 

In another section of the city she has established a Mothers' Club. 
At the first meeting 170 mothers were present. She lectures regularly at 
various points on the hygiene of the home. She also assists in the work of 
the Old Folks' Home, for colored people, visiting the institution once a 
week. 

When Mrs. James asked to be appointed to the Visiting Nurses' Asso- 
ciation, the colored people themselves were very much opposed to it, and 
before this time had contributed nothing to the fund for paying the vis- 
iting nurses. Through her appointment and her individual efforts, many 
colored individuals and organizations have contributed very creditable 
amounts to the visiting nurses' fund. In several instances yearly subscrip- 
tions have been secured. 

Mrs. Robert Ireland, a wealthy Cleveland lady, who has a winter home 
home on the Pebble Hill Plantation near Thomasville, Georgia, was so im- 
pressed with Mrs. James' work that she invited her to go to the Pebble Hill 
Plantation and establish a work among the colored people there. Mrs. 

[45] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 

James accepted the invitation and during her vacation in 1909, began this 
virork. There was no school for the colored children in that vicinity. Mrs. 
James visited and wrorked among the colored people and they begged her to 
start a school for them. She opened up a little industrial school with 39 
pupils. That these pupils were really in earnest and were eager to learn 
was shown by the fact that some of them who lived six miles away walked 
regularly each day to school. The school was put on a permanent basis 
and a regular teacher was secured. 

During the short time that Mrs. James was at Thomasville, she had 
47 charity patients, and was given free access to the City Hospital. 



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fFork of Offshoots of Tuskegee Institute 

TWENTY-THREE Industrial Schools have been directly or indirectly, 
founded by graduates and former students of Tuskegee Institute. 
These schools are employing 140 teachers, 62 of whom are graduates 
or former students of Tuskegee. Through these offshoots 4,062 students 
in 1910 were being industrially trained and 73,000 people were reached 
through extension work. 

John Calhoun Thomas, a former student, who was mentioned above as 
being a prosperous farmer near Prattville, Alabama, assisted in establishing a 
niTich needed public school in his community. He gave the school ten 
acres of land, and has materially assisted in raising funds for a school build- 
ing and to lengthen the school term from four to eight months. During 
the past year, he raised $678.34 for these purposes. The 163 pupils of this 
school are, in addition to their literary subjects, taUght sewing and agricul- 
ture. The school has a Woman's Improvement Club and a Local Farmers' 
Conference. Through these two agencies 638 persons are being reached. 
Mrs. Nannie L. Butler, '08, established December 14th, 1908, the 
Mary H. HoUiday Public School on the Yellov^ Bayou plantation, near 
Luna Landing, Arkansas. This large plantation, which belongs to a 
number of absentee heirs; has eighty tenant Negro families The children 
on the plantation were to a large extent growing up in ignorance. One of 
the heirs to this plantation, a Miss Mary H. Holliday, of Berlin, Germany, 
wishing to do something for the uplifting of the Yellow Bayou people, re- 
quested that the Tuskegee Institute send a teacher there. When Mrs But- 
ler arrived she found that there was no school building and only a make- 
shift public school held in a church. What she has accomplished can best 
be described in her own words: "I began work here the tenth of Janu- 
ary, 1908. There seemed to be nothing to encourage me to remain but 
the pitiful, ignorant faces that I met from day to day. With a determina- 
tion to succeed, I began to plan how to raise money to build a schoolhouse. 
I first appealed to the church, but through this means was able to raise only 
between four and five dollars. Other efforts were not more successful. I 
was not discouraged, however. One Saturday morning, I borrowed a horSe 
and saddle to begin- a canvass of the plantation. I explained my plan to the 
menwherever I could fiiid them, in the field, woods, cotton gin or other 
places on the plantation. I returned in the afternoon with a subscription 
list of $80.00. I held my usual Saturday afternoon Mothers' Meeting and 

[47] 



Industrial Work of Tuskkgee 

raised there $10.00 in subscriptions. The next day at church, the list was 
increased to $125.00. I then went to the manager of the plantation and 
asked him if he would advance the money and let the people pay him when 
the crops were sold. He agreed to this. The county officials agreed to 
give $100. I then wrote to Miss Holliday, telling her how much we had 
raised, and for an answer I received her check for $500.00. The people also 
increased their subscriptions. Thus in fifteen weeks, I was able to raise 
$950.00, $100 from the county, $350 by cash and subscriptions and $500.00 
from Miss Holliday." Mrs. Butler's work so impressed Miss Holliday and 
her family that they later agreed to build the schoolhouse outright and to 
allow the $500.00 which she subscribed to go for the equipment of the 
building, and the amount subscribed by the people to be used for their own 
improvement. The schoolhouse was built and opened December 14th, 
1908. Three teachers are employed. Mrs. Butler teaches the industries 
which consist of sewing, cooking, housekeeping and gardening. She visits 
the people in their homes and instructs them in the matter of dress, the 
care of the home and to take more interest in their children. In this way 
all the families in the vicinity are being reached, that is, about 400 people. 

Warren E. Glen, '02, established in 1902 the Cordova Institute at 
Cordova, South Carolina. During the present year this school employed 3 
teachers and enrolled 95 pupils. Sewing, dressmaking and painting were 
taught. After remaining as principal of this Institute for about one year, 
Mr. Glen went to Taft, Oklahoma, and founded the Halochee Industrial 
Institute. This school, in 1906, employed 7 teachers and enrolled 250 pupils. 
The state of Oklahoma has recently purchased this school and turned it 
it into a deaf and dumb institute for Negroes. 

John W. Oveltrea, '93, established in 1898 the East Tennessee Indus- 
trial Institute, at Harriman, Tennessee. 

Chas. P. Adams, '01, established in 1905 the North Louisiana Agri- 
cultural and Industrial Institute, at Grambling, Louisiana. 

Abner B. Jackson, '90, established in 1893, the Jacksonian Enterprise 
school at Newville, Alabama. Two teachers are employed and 100 pupils 
are enrolled. No industries are taught in this school except sewing for 
girls. 

W. D. Floyd, '87, established at Hawkinsville, Alabama, in 1899, the 
Hawkinsville Rural and Industrial School. He has recently built with the 
help of the state and the Negro Rural School Fund, a very nice building. 
Colonel Hiram Hawkins, in honor of whom the school was named, and the 
leading white planter in this community, is president of the board of trus- 
tees. He has taken a deep interest in the school, and at the close of the 
last term delivered the commencement address. The present enrollment of 

[48] 



v^A •■ ■- 



Graduates and Former Students 

the school is 174. Three teachers are employed. Gardening, cooking and 
sewing are taught. Through extension work, cooking and sewing are 
taught in the adjacent schools. In this way about 500 people are being 
reached. 

Vernon W. Barnett, '97, has worked in the rural districts since his 
graduation. In 1906 he established the Charity Industrial School, in 
Lowndes County, Alabama. The Negroes in this county outnumber the 
whites almost seven to one. The school facilities are especially poor. Bar- 
nett has built up a good school with an eight months' term. Two teachers 
are employed. The most of the money used for the support of the school 
has been raised by the patrons. They have paid for five additional months 
of school. Last year they paid $140 for the support of the school. In 
three years, through Barnett's influence, they have also paid for $100 worth 
of land and erected a three-room school building worth $800. He sends 
the following interesting information about his work. 

Charity Industrial School, 
Charity, Alabama, Sept. 15, 1910. 
Dr. Booker T. Washington, 

Tuskegee Institute, Alabama. 
My Dear Principal: — 

I am yet serving as princip?! of the Charity Industrial School, where I have been 
for the past four years. 

Before I came here the people did not own a school building and the school term 
was three or four months long. 

Since our beginning we have paid $100 for two acres of school land upon which we 
have erected a school building worth at least $800; and instead of a three months term we 
now have one of eight months. My patrons have done this out of their small earnings, 
We are now erecting a blacksmith shop in which we hope to teach our boys blacksmith- 
ing. We also have a sewing class in connection with the other school work and not only 
our girls, but our community has been very much helped thereby. 

These necessary improvements have not been accomplished without great sacrifice. 
Ofttimes my trustees have not been able to pay me in full for my services, but I have not 
allowed myself to grow discouraged, knowing that this was a worthy field and that some- 
body must sacrifice to establish and maintain a good school here. 

I enter the work each year without a dollar in sight and no financial backing except 
that of my patrons. 

I accept my salary in syrup, meal, corn, or anything that I can use in my family. 
In this way I have been able to improve conditions here somewhat. 

I am going to have my pupils do more agricultural work next term than heretofore. 

If we had a mule or a horse and the necessary farm tools our students could do so 
much more toward helping themselves, besides learning a great deal more in the agricul- 
tural line. 

To accomplish this, I am asking my patrons and friends to give 100 ears of corn, 
each. 

With veiy best wishes for your success, I am, 

Yours very truly, 

(Signed) Vernon W. Barnett. 

[49] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegek 

Byrd T. Crawford.'Ol, established in 1908 the Canfield Normal and 
Industrial School, at Canfield, Arkansas. He is assisted in this work by his 
wife, Mrs. Holland Adams Crawford, a former student of Tuskegee, As a 
basis for industrial work, forty acres of land were purchased. The school 
was located in the midst of a tract of land that is being used for the purpose 
of building up a Negro community. A two-story school building has been 
erected. Industries for girls and boys are taught. Three teachers are em- 
ployed and 103 students enrolled. 

N. E. Henry, '93, established in 1902 the Colored Union Literary and 
Industrial School, at China, Alabama. He is doing a successful work here. 
Five teachers are employed. In addition to himself, two of these are gradu- 
ates of Tuskegee, Mrs. M. V. Henry, '04, and Annie P. Cuningham, '08. 
Mrs. Henry is doing an excellent work in superintending the industries of 
the girls and working among the women of her community. Cooking, sew- 
ing, gardening, and basketry are taught. Ninety-two students are enrolled. 
This school is the headquarters of the Jeanes Fund Rural School Work in 
Conecuh County, Alabama. By this means and through the farmers' con 
ference and mothers' clubs, between 2,000 and 5,000 people are being 
reached. 

Mrs. Lula J. Davidson, '96, was the prime mover in. establishing in 1900 
at Centerville, Alabama, the Centerville Industrial Institute. Mrs. David- 
son died in June, 1908. The school is now carried on by her husband, H. D. 
Davidson. The school property is valued at $7,250 and consists of 85 acres 
of land, 3 school buildings, and live stock and implements. One hundred 
and thirty-six pupils are enrolled and 4 teachers are employed. Two of 
these are from Tuskegee. Grace Belcher, '08, and Lula M. Russell, a 
former student. Sewing, cooking, housekeeping, fancy needlework and 
truck gardening are taught. A summer institute for teachers is carried on. 
One of the industrial teachers spends two-thirds of her time in the various 
rural schools of the county, teaching, cooking, sewing, housekeeping and 
the improvement of the schools. In this and in other ways, about 800 peo- 
ple are being reached. 

Arthur W. Mitchell, a former student, and Mrs. Eula King Mitchell, 
'03, established in 1908, at Panola, Alabama, the West Alabama Normal and 
Industrial Institute. Four teachers are employed and 260 students are 
enrolled. Agriculture, blacksmithing, wheelwrighting, carpentry, sewing, 
cooking, housekeeping and laundering are taught. Through the farmers' 
conference over a thousand people are being reached. Mr. John A. Rogers 
of Gainesville, Alabama, writes the following commendatory letter concern- 
ing Mitchell: 

[SO] 



Graduates and Former Students 

Gainesville, Alabama, March 5, 1910. 
Dr. Booker T. Washington: 
Dear Sir- 
Less than two years ago, I gave ayoung Negro, Arthur W. Mitchell, 80 acres of land 
on condition of his building structures on the same to be used in establishing an Agricul- 
tural, Industrial and Mechanical School. He has exceeded my expectation in the energy 
and ability shown by him. 

He had do money and I gave him three years in -vhich to erect these buildings. He 
went into the wood's with an axe and with his own hands felled the trees out of which the 
rough lumber was cut. Better than his energy and ability, which are essential to success 
he has shown a spirit of morality and good citizenship which has had its effect among the 
people. 

I believe him to be worthy of aid and encouragement, and that his example will be 
of great beneht to the Negroes in this section of the South. 

I am myself, an Alabamian, the descendant of slave-owners since the foundation of 
our government, and as my fathers were largely responsible for the presence of the Negroes 
in America, I feel it my duty for this reason, and foi the highest reason that it is the duty 
of the strong to help the weak, to put these people in the way of earning an honest living, 
which must come through a training of their hands, their minds and their hearts. 

(Signed) John A. Rogers. 

Cornelia Bowen, '85, established in 1889 the Mt. Meigs Colored Insti- 
tute at Waugh, Alabama. Here for over 21 years she has labored for the 
upbuilding of the people, and has built up a very successful industrial school. 
Seven teachers are employed, and 289 pupils are enrolled. R. R. Edmond- 
son, '07, has charge of industries for the boys, and Kate A. Bowen, a former 
student, is matron. Sewing, housekeeping, blacksmithing and carpentry are 
taught. Through the farmers' conference and mothers' meeting, about 
2,000 people are being reached. 

Miss Bowen is also very active in the work of the State Federation of 
Colored Women's Clubs, which has established at Mt. Meigs a Reforma- 
tory for colored youths. She has the superintendence of the reformatory 
Arrangements have been made whereby juvenile delinquents are sent to the 
Reformatory from the various courts of the state. This Reformatory is rapid- 
ly becoming an important factor in preventing wayward youths from becom- 
ing confirmed criminals. These boys are taught reading, writing, arithme- 
tic and farming. 

Russell C. Calhoun, '96, established in 1899, by planting one and one- 
half acres of sweet potatoes, the Robert Hungerford Industrial School at 
Eatonville, Florida. This is one of the most successful o£F-shoots of Tus. 
kegee. It has had a steady and consistent growth. Fourteen teachers are 
employed and 210 students are enrolled, agriculture, tinsmithing, plumb- 
ing, basketry, broommaking, sewing, cooking and laundering are taught. 
Mr. Calhoun is assisted in his work by 6 other graduates and former students 
of Tuskegee. J. J. Harris, a former student, has charge of the agricultural 

[51] 



Industrial Work of Tuskkgee 

work. Henry Wood, '09, has charge of carpentry. Margaret R. Richey, 
'07, is assistant head of the academic work. Bessie Storey, '07, has charge 
of basketry and broommaking. M. B. Flemming, '06, has charge of tinsmith- 
ing and plumbing. Mrs. M. C. Calhoun, a former student, is the director 
of the girls' industries. This school is the headquarters for a Jeanes Fund 
teacher, who, during the past year, extended the school's usefulness to 6 
public schools in the vicinity. Through the farmers' conference, the Jeanes 
Fund work and other agencies, about 2,000 people are being reached. The 
following report of the last annual commencement gives an idea of what is 
now being done by this institution: "Two hundred and ten students have 
been enrolled during the year. Of these 112 have been in the boarding de- 
partment. Girls and boys have been about equal in number. Especial stress 
have been laid on those principles which young people should learn early in 
life, the saving of a part of their earnings, however small, and a proper 
respect toward all persons and all classes at all times. Of the heads of differ- 
ent departments, five have been trained wholly at the Robert Hungerford 
School and they are among its most faithful and efficient workers. There 
have been added during the year an excellent tin shop, a first-class planer, 
which increases the value of our lumber at cash $6 per thousand, a turning 
lathe and wood saw. Through the kindness of two good friends, fifty- 
eight additional acres of land have been secured. One of these tracts has on 
it an orange grove of about 400 bearing trees and promises to yield this year 
at least 1,000 boxes. In addition to these there are about 45 acres of very 
valuable native pines on the tract. 

"The sawmill has cut over 40,000 feet of lumber during the year, and 
much of this has been planned, tongued and grooved and a great deal made 
into manufactured articles. The farm produced 450 bushels of sweet pota- 
toes, large quantities of hay and vegetables, 900 pounds of pork, 425 pounds 
of butter, 800 gallons of milk, 275 chickens and turkeys and large numbers 
of eggs. More and more attention isbeing given to the farm. Two pairs of 
mules are very much needed for it. Over three hundred choice young or- 
ange and grapefruit trees have been planted this spring. 

"Much work has been done through the Negro Conference and other 
forms of work outside of school work proper, and yet the school closes the 
year free of debt." 

April 14th, 1897, Elizabeth E. Wright, '94, established at Denmark, 
South Carolina, the Voorhees Industrial School. The school was opened 
upstairs over an old storehouse. Chairs, benches and a bell had to be bor- 
rowed. "There was nothing with which to begin such work, but the 
founder decided to make something out of nothing." The number of stu- 
dents soon grew from 14 to 250 and the little room became so overcrowded 

[52] 



s^% 



-■% \ "^A: 




Graduates and Former Students 

that one of the white citizens of the place, the Honorable C. G. Mayfield, 
became interested in the work which Miss Wright was trying to do and 
made it possible for 20 acres of land and two old plantation houses to be se- 
cured at a cost of $2,000. From this small beginning the school has grown 
until at present it has 400 acres of land, 15 buildings, 14 head of horses and 
mules, 50 hogs, 10 head of cows and 7 vehicles of various kinds, with a total 
value of $55,000. This work remains as a monument to Miss Wright, who 
died December 14th, 1906, as a result of her unremitting labors for the ad- 
vancement of the interests of this school. Gabriel Miller, '00, succeeded 
her as principal. 19 teachers are employed and there are 433 students. 20 
industries are taught. They are blacksmithing, broommaking, wheelwright- 
ing, carpentry, woodturning, painting, plumbing, printing, bricklaying, me- 
chanical drawing, shoemaking, general agriculture, stock-raising, dairying, 
poultry raising, cooking, sewing, millinery, nurse training and laundering. 
In addition to the principal, 9 other graduates of Tuskegee are assisting in 
this work. Martin A. Menafee, '00, is treasurer and assistant principal; 
Edward D. Jenkins; '01, is farm manager and United States Agricultural 
Demonstration Agent; Grant A. Johnson, '04, has charge of the live stock 
division; William S. Little, '03, carpentry; Augusta Crosby, '94, nurse 
training; Roxanna Menafee, '03, boarding department; Emily Harper, '04, 
music and literary teacher; Janie Williams, '04, millinery; Rosa Williams, 
'07, sewing. 

Two branches of extension work are carried on, the farmers' confer- 
ence work and the United States Agricultural Demonstration Work. 
Through these two agencies about 10,000 people are being reached. 

William J. Edwards graduated from the Tuskegee Institute in 1893. 
The following year, with fifty cents and three students, he established, in a 
log cabin at his home in Wilcox County, Alabama, the Snow Hill Normal 
and Indusrial Institute. From this small beginning there is now a school with 
33 teachers and 371 pupils. The school plant consists of 3,950 acres of land, 
and 21 buildings, with a total value of about $90,000. Fifteen industries 
are taught. They are blacksmithing, wheelwrighting, carpentry, saw-mill- 
ing, brickmaking, brickmasonry, painting, printing, general farming, truck 
gardening, dairying, cooking, sewing, laundering and basketry. 

Thirteen other graduates and two former students of Tuskegee Institute, 
are assisting in the Snow Hill work. Henry A. Barnes, '93, is Treasurer 
and Assistant Principal. Edward D. Whitehead, '96, is the head of the 
Academic Department. Edwin H. Lee, '02, is a teacher in the Academic 
Department. Ralph A. Daly, '03, is Superintendent of Industies. Wallace 
W. Hays, '09, is Director of the Agricultural Department. W. C. Cheers, 
'03, is in charge of the school farm. Elcano N. Johnson, '97, is Command- 
ant. Reuben M. Fatton, '03, has charge of the Boarding Department. 

[53] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 

Belle E. Williams, '09, teaches basketry; Mary M. Hill, '08, laundering; 
Nancy M. Gaines, a former student, is matron; Miss Elizabeth Cook, '06, 
has charge of sewing and dressmaking; and Harry Sims, '08, has charge of 
the United States Agricultural Demonstration Work. 

Much good has been done among the people of the community. 
When the school was first started, the colored people did not own more 
than 20 acres of land. Now, within a radius of ten miles, they own more 
than 10,000 acres. Their farms range in size from 20 to 500 acres. The 
one-room log cabins have been replaced by cottages with from two to five 
rooms. New public schools and churches have been built, and in some 
cases the school term extended from 3 months to eight months. Both the 
teachers and preachers are of a much higher grade than those who formerly 
worked in that section. 

Extension work is carried on through the Black Belt Improvement So- 
ciety, a Farmers' Conference, Agricultural Demonstration Work, a mothers' 
club, and the ministers' association. One of the Snow Hill graduates, Mrs. 
Marina B. Clark, works under the Jeanee Fund among the rural schools of 
the county and is doing much in the various communities where she visits, 
in addition to teaching industrial work, by helping to improve the home life 
of the people. Harry Sims, '08, travels over the entire county, and teaches 
the 5,000 Negro farmers how to farm according to the latest improved 
methods. He also organizes the farmers into clubs for the improvement of 
their gardens and their homes. Through these various extension activities, 
about 15,000 people are being reached. 

Counting those who have received their dij^lomas and certificates, and 
those who remained at the school long enough to receive industrial training, 
Snow Hill has sent out somethmg like 600 young men and women. They are 
working as farmers, carpenters, blacksmiths, printers, brickmasons, wheel- 
wrights, seamstresses, in domestic service, and as teachers. Three of the 
graduates have started industrial schools of their own. John Thomas who 
graduated from Snow Hill in 1901, established at Furman, Wilcox County, 
Alabama, in 1906, the Hopewell Mental and Manual Training School. 
Two teachers are employed and 175 people are enrolled. Farming and 
cooking are taught. This school is located in a section of the county 
where education is very much needed. The Superintendent of Ed- 
ucation of Wilcox County and Mr. N. D. Godbold, a prominent lawyer of 
the county, have issued the following statement concerning Mr. Thomas: 

Camden, Alabama, May 14th, 1910. 
To Whom It May Concern: 

We have known lohn Thomaa, the principal of Hopewell Mental and Manual Train- 
ing School, Furman, Alabama, for nine yean. We consider him one of the best equipped 

[54] 



Graduates and Former. Students 

teachers of his race in this section of the country. We have found him honest, capable, 
and devoted to his work. It seems to be his earnest desire to elevate his race along the 
right lines, and we believe he should be encouraged. 

He has shown considerable executive ability in that he founded a school in the woods 
three years ago and now has two buildings and five acres of ground. We feel confident 
that any assistance you may render him will be properly used for the advancement of his 
cause. 

Very truly, 

(Signed) N. D. Godbold, Attorney-at-Law, 

Will M. Cook, Superintendent of Education. 

Emanuel M. Brown, who graduated from Snow Hill in 1904, es- 
tablished that same year the Street Manual Training School at Richmond, 
in Dallas County, Alabama. This school now has 30 acres of land and four 
buildings. 225 students are enrolled and 4 teachers are employed. Cook- 
ing, sewing and agriculture are taught. One of the teachers visits the 
neighboring public schools and teaches industries in them. A monthly 
farmers' conference is held. 

Emanuel D. McDuffie, who also graduated from Snow Hill in 1904, 
established September 18th of that year the Laurinburg Normal and Indus- 
trial Institute, at Laurinburg, North Carolina. 305 students are enrolled 
and 10 teachers are employed. Seven of these are graduates of Snow 
Hill Institute. Seven industries are being taught, namely: sewing, cooking, 
housekeeping, farming, wheelwrighting, blacksmithing and laundering. The 
extension work of the school is carried on largely through the Jeanes Foun- 
dation. The school is helping the people generally. "Where there was 
ignorance and indifierence, now there is a fair measure of thrift and intelli- 
gence. The people are buying homes and property, and in many ways 
showing signs of aspiration for a better and more useful life." The school's 
extension work is reaching about 3,000 people. 

William H. Holtzclaw, '98, established in 1903, the Utica Normal and 
Industrial Institute, at I tica, Mississippi. What has been accomplished 
in the seven years since the establishment of the school is best stated in Mr. 
Holtzclaw's own words. In a letter to Principal Washington under date of 
October 22, 1909, he says: "It is seven years ago today since I came to the 
state of Mississippi and began work as a public school teacher in this locality. 
One year later I began building up what is now known as the Utica Nor- 
mal and Industrial Institute. Although we started without means or prom- 
ise of help from any direction, and began work in the open air, in the forest 
with only the trees for a shelter, we have grown steadily by hard work and 
close application until today we have a fairly well organized institution with 
four large buildings and more than thirty smaller houses of various kinds, 
with an enrollment of between three and four hundred students, and em- 
ploy twenty-nine teachers and officers. At this time the institution owns 

[55] 



Industrial Work of Tuskegee 

more than fifteen hundred acres of land, all paid for, and its property is val- 
ued at about $100,000, all of which is deeded to the board of trustees who 
control its management." 

The enrollment for the last year was 402. Eighteen industries are taught. 
They are carpentry, blacksmithing, printing, shoemaking, brickmasonry, 
plastering, painting, sewing, millinery, cooking, laundering, housekeeping, 
stock raising, dairying, agriculture, sawmilling, cotton ginning and wheel- 
wrighting. Five other teachers are graduates of Tuskegee Institute. 
Mrs. Mary E. Patterson Holtzclaw, '95, is director of the girls' industries. 
Walter Nicholson, '07, has charge of agriculture; Mary Edna Barland, '07, 
teaches millinery; Mrs. Effie Holtzclaw Davis, '04, is principal of the 
night school; Lucy L. Clopton, '98, teaches English. 

The teachers of the institution are organized into a community im- 
provement society. A specified territory is assigned to each teacher. They 
are held responsible for its advancement morally and otherwise. There is a 
strong farmers' conference. Altogether, it is estimated that the school's ex- 
tension work is reaching 25,000 people. 

The last Annual Report of the Principal of the Utica Normal and In- 
dustrial Institute graphically sets forth what has been accomplished in the 
improvement of the people. 

"From the beginning the aim of the institution has been to make it- 
self a power for good in this community and throughout this section of the 
country, not only through the medium of its students, but by reaching the 
people directly as far as possible. That this aim is being realized in a greater 
and greater measure, is shown by the changed conditions throughout this 
section; for wherever the influence of the institution has been felt, there 
are clearly noticeable a higher moral tone, marked religious changes, and a 
greater material progress. For example, six years ago, men and women in 
not a few instances were living together as man and wife without the sem- 
blance of a legal tie and rearing their children, but today no such conditions 
can be found anywhere in the community, and public sentiment would not 
tolerate them. Six years ago, every church in this community had to close 
its doors before the sun went down, not daring to attempt religious servi- 
ces at night on account of the character of their congregations; today, serv- 
ices are held in all the churches at the pleasure of the worshippers. Six 
years ago there were few, if any, men in this community who owned a 
home; today more than 3,000 acres of land are owned by Negroes, 
and many of them are erecting comfortable cottages, planting fruit and shade 
trees, and making real homes for themselves and their families. These are 
a few of the many changes which have taken place during the six years 
this institution has been permitted to work in this community. 

[56] 



Graduates and Former Students 

There hav6 been 28 graduates from the school; all but one of these 
are living and doing honorable work as teachers or at their trades. In the 
seven .years of this school's existence, 400 other young people aside from the 
graduates, have received more or less industrial training and many of these 
are doing wrell at their trades or as teachers," 

The Utica Normal and Industrial Institute has two ofishoots. In 1904 
a student of Utica Institute established at Florence, Mississippi, the Spring 
Hill Normal and Industrial School. It has 3 teachers and 220 students. 
Cooking, sewing and agriculture are taught. 

G. W. Williams, a graduate of the Utica Institute, established in 1907, 
the Mississippi Industrial High School at Crystal Springs, Mississippi. 4 
teachers are employed and 80 pupils are enrolled. Sewing, laundering, 
cooking and farming are taught. Caladonia Clausell, '08, teaches sewing 
and is matron. This school through its teachers, does a somewhat extended 
extension work. 

Each day after school hours they visit among the people and hold at 
least once a week, a night meeting. Every Sunday, some church several 
miles away is visited. There, of course, the largest crowds are met. Some 
of these churches have a membership of six or seven hundred, and on their 
big meeting" days the majority of them are present. The principal esti- 
mates that the school's extension work is reaching about 4,000 people. In 
order to better carry on the extension work, and to give a larger opportunity 
for farming, the school has recently moved its location a few miles and pur- 
chased 70 acres of land in a community where there is only one white family. 

Schools Headed, but not Founded by Tuske- 

gee Students 

There are six schools which, although not founded by Tuskegee 
graduates are headed by them. 

Joseph S. Shanklin, '01, has for seven years been principal of the Port 
Royal Agricultural School, near Beaufort, South Carolina. This school is 
designed to assist the Negroes of the Sea Islands along the South Carolina 
coast: The object of the school is especially to train boys and girls to be 
farmers. The school has 800 acres of land and 4 good buildings. Cooking, 
sewing, housekeeping, laundering, blacksmithing, farming, care of stock and 
poultry-raising are taught. The principal of this school is efficiently assisted 
by his wife, India Gordon Shanklin, '04, who has charge of the industries 
for girls and helps generally to mianage the affairs of the institution. 

[573 



Industrial Work of Tuskeobe 

Through the farmers' conference, a very excellent work is being done and 
about 5,000 people are being reached. 

William H. Carter, '93, has for ten years been principal of the Topeka 
Industrial and Educational Institute at Topeka, Kansas. When he took 
hold of this school it was but little more than a name. It now has 105 
acres of land, and school buildings and other equipments worth over $50,- 
000. The state of Kansas gives some assistance to this institution. The 
state has just erected for the school, a $17,000 academic building. 
Cooking, sewing, housekeeping, carpentry, printing, painting, tailoring and 
farming are taught. During the past year 112 pupils were enrolled and 7 
teachers were employed. With one exception all the teachers are gradu- 
ates of Tuskegec Institute. Marcellus W. Freeman, '01, teaches printing; 
Albert J. Shootes, '97, tailoring; E. P. Rowell, '06, carpentry; Mary E. Fos- 
ter, '07, sewing; Anna E. Arnold, '07, sewing. 

Isaac Fisher, '98, has for eight years been principal of the Arkansas 
State School for Negroes, the Branch Normal College, at Pine Bluff. 
Ten teachers are employed and 302 pupils are enrolled. Sewing, car- 
pentry, blacksmithing and machine shop work are taught. 

The Christianburg Industrial Institute, at Cambria, Virginia an insti- 
tution under the auspices of the Friends Freedmen's Association, has for 
the past fourteen years had a graduate of Tuskegee Institute as its principal. 
Charles L. Marshall, '95, was principal here from 1897 to 1906. When he 
was put at the head of this work, it was in such a bad way that the 
Friends Association had discussed the advisability of discontinuing it. He 
took hold of the work, developed the industrial side and made the Institute 
one of the strongest of the smaller industrial schools of the state. Mr. 
Marshall died in 1906, and was worthily succeeded by Edgar A. Long, '95. 
He has been ably assisted in this work by his wife, Annie L. Patterson 
Long, '95. 

The Christiansburg Institute now has 266 students and 11 teachers. 
Cooking, sewing, laundering, carpentry, printing and fanning are taught. A 
model experiment farm for the farmers of the vicinity is maintained by the 
Institute. A farmers' conference is held. The Institute has charge of 
the County Teachers' Association. A summer normal for teachers is held 
each year. Through these activities about 2,500 people are being reached. 

Walter S. Buchanan, '99, was in 1909 put at the head of the Alabama 
State Agricultural and Mechanical College for Negroes, at Normal, Ala- 
bama. This is one of the oldest and best equipped of the colored industrial 
schools. It employs 32 teachers, and enrolls 390 students. Cooking, dress- 
making, millinery, laundering, nurse training, blacksmithing, whedwright- 
ing, carpentry, brickmasonry, painting, plumbing, printing, steaiti engineer 

[58] 



z > 



- < 

CD m 

00 !0 

- > 




Graduates and Former Students 

ing, electrical engineering, shoemaking, tailoring and agriculture are taught. 
Seven graduates and former students of Tuskegee are assisting Mr. 
Buchanan. John H. Pinkard, '99, is secretary and business manager; 
Robert L. Campbell, '03, is instructor in machinery and engineering; Mrs. 
Alice Mulligan Campbell, a former student, is matron; Luther A. Van 
Hoose, '96, is instructor in wheelwrighting and blacksmithing; John W. 
Fentress, '06, is instructor in painting; Waverly B. Buchanan, a former 
student is commissarian; MoUie R.Ardis, a former student, is librarian. 
Through the Farmers' Institute, and the United States Agricultural De> 
monstration Work, and through the Jeanes Fund rural school work, effect- 
ive Extension Work is carried on. 



[59] 



CHAPTER V. 
The Value of An Industrial Education 

IN the foregoing chapters it has been shown that Tuskegee graduates 
and former students, through their work in agriculture, in the trades, 
and through the offshoots which they have established, are exerting a 
wide influence in the South. 

In this connection the question naturally arises as to how much financial 
benefit a training at Tuskegee is to the individuals thus trained; also how 
much of a return does the public get for the money which it has expended 
in the training of these persons, and how much economic benefit their train- 
ing has been to the South. These questions are now considered. 

Most of the courses at Tuskegee cover a period of three years, but 
many students after two years of practical training are ready to do industrial 
work profitably. 

In a large number of instances, also, those who remained at Tuskegee 
only one year have been able to go out and immediately begin work at a trade, 
receiving almost from the beginning the full wages paid in the trade. The 
great demand in the South for persons to work in the trades has had very 
much to do with students leaving Tuskegee after remaining one or two 
years. 

A very large majority of the students who have attended Tuskegee 
were adults when they entered the institution. Before entering 
these adults had generally an earning capacity of from $5 to $10 per month, 
and from fifty to seventy-five cents per day. After remaining at the in- 
stitution from one to three years the average student is in demand at wages 
ranging from $1.50 to $3.00 per day with increase of pay as he gains 
experience. The exceptional ones are able to command almost at once 
from $4.00 to $5.00 per day. 

A very large percentage of the individuals who go out from Tuskegee 
generally earn money by doing more than one thing. As for example many 
of the teachers also do farming. Many individuals have also accumulated 
profit-paying property and thus increased their income, which is equivalent 
to increasing their earning capacity. Those individuals who have been out 
from the Institution for a considerable length of time, by means of securing 
better paying positions, doing more than one thing, and through their prop- 
erty, are constantly increasing their income, that is, their earnings. 

The average earnings of persons trained at Tuskegee it appears, 
is about $700 per year. Their average earnings before attending Tus- 

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o 
o 

X 

o 



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Graduates and Former Students 

kegee was about $100 per year. Their earning capacity has therefore been 
increased about 600 per cent. 

A careful estimate indicates that since the foundation of the institution, 
two years of training have been given to approximately 9,000 persons. 

The average length of time that these 9,000 students have been out is 
14 years, during which time, their estimated earnings have been $88,200,000. If 
they had not received an industrial training, they would have earned during 
the 14 yews only $12,600,000.00. That is, by receiving an industrial training, 
they have been able to earn $75,600,000.00 more than they would have 
earned had they not received this training. 

One of the cardinal teachings of Tuskegee is, "have a bank account, 
get a home and own property." This teaching has been most successfully 
carried out. It is very seldom that a person from Tuskegee Institute is 
found who does not have a bank account, who has not accumulated some 
property, and who is not trying to own a home. If they have lived in a 
community for a considerable length of time they are generally found to be 
among the largest property holders there. Numerous instances have been 
cited above where these property holdings were quite large, in several instan- 
ces ranging from $20,000 to $40,000. Exact information was obtained 
concerning the property holdings of 242 of the persons included in this study. 
These 242 persons each owned an average of $4,000.00 worth of property. 
This is of course much above the average for all the persons who have gone 
out from Tuskegee. It is probable, however, that the property holdings 
of all the graduates and former students of Tuskegee amount to $15,000,000, 
which is about an average of $1,700 per property owner. This is consid- 
erably above the average of Negro property holdings. This is due to the 
superior earning power of the Tuskegee trained persons and to habits o' 
thrift and industry which are inculcated in them while they are at Tus- 
kegee. 

As noted above, the average earnings of the persons from Tuskegee is 
about $700 per year. That of the average Negro person is about $300 ayear 
or less. That is to say, an individual from Tuskegee Institute, in addition 
to the habits of thrift and industry which he has acquired, through his 
increased earning capacity has also much more to invest in property than 
the ordinary man. 

In the foregoing it has been shown that a training at Tuskegee is finan- 
cially very profitable. It now remains to consider the returns which the 
public has received for the money which it had expended in the training of 
Tuskegee students, and how much economic benefit their training has been 
to the South. 

In the first years of Tuskegee Institute, the average yearly cost to the 
institution for the instruction of a student was about $40. In the course of 

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Industrial Work of Tuskbgbk 

29 years, because of the increase in the size of the plant, more expen- 
sive apparatus, and greater expense of operating, the cost per year to the Insti- 
tution for the instruction of a student has risen until it is about $134. For 
the 29 years the average cost per student has been about $81.50. (The 
cost of training a student is, strictly speaking, much less; for with the same 
educational plant and practically the same expense by means of a varied ex- 
tension work each year thousands of outside persons are reached.) The 
total cost to the Institution for the training of students has been approx- 
imately $1,467,000. About 9,000 persons or almost three-fourths of all 
those attending left the institution fitted to do industrial work. 

The funds, which Tuskegce Institute has expended in the training of 
her students, came originally from the public. Not counting those persons 
who remained at the institution only a short time, the public, on 9,000 stu- 
dents, has expended approximately $1,467,000. Before this money was ex- 
pended, the earning capacity of each of these students was about $100 per 
year. Reckoning their ability as capital and the wages which they could 
command as interest upon this capital, this would make the ability of each 
student, on a six per cent, basis, worth $1,666.66, and the ability 
of the 9,000 about $15,000,000. After these students had received their 
industrial training, they were able on an average, to command as wages 
$700 per year. Reckoning this as interest upon the value of their ability, we 
have the ability of each of them on a 6 per cent, basis in round numbers to 
be about $11,700.00, and the value of their total ability to be $105,300,000. 
That is, by means of the $1,467,000 which the public expended in the train- 
ing of these students, the value of their ability to the country has increased 
$90,300,000. The county, therefore, has received a return of 600 per cent, 
on the capital, which has been invested in the training of these 9,000 
students. 

It now remains to consider what has been the economic value to the 
South of the training of students at Tuskegee Institute. The South has 
received great benefit from the industrial training of these persons because 
with some few exceptions all of them are at work in the South. If we 
reckon the working people as so much capital available for its development, 
then on the basis of the estimate made above, these 9,000 students without 
industrial training would have been economically worth about $15,000,000 
to the South; but by means of industrial training their economic value has 
been increased $90,300,000. It can be said, then, that the industrial train- 
ing of persons at Tuskegee Institute has been worth that much to the 
South. 

The returns to the South from the training of these students are even 
greater than this. The Principal of Tuskegee Institute has always said 

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Graduates and Former Studejjts 

that in his opinion the greatest thing that the school has done was to teach 
the dignity of labor. The persons who have gone out from Tuskegee Insti- 
tute are leaders. They have Spread the doctrine of the dignity of labor. By 
their example they have exerted a profound influence upon the Negroes of 
the South. They have assisted in improving the moral conditions of the 
people. In this way they have directly and indirectly helped to improve 
economic conditions; since discipline, sobriety, order, and better family life, 
all tend to economic efficiency. 

They have materially helped to raise the standard of agriculture and to 
make Negroes better farmers. Just as Tuskegee taught them, they have 
taught the people, "to have a bank account, get a home and own property." 
The work at Hilton Head, at the Snow Hill Institute, and at the Utica 
Institute are but prominent examples of what Tuskegee students are doing 
in many places to make it possible for a large number of people to acquire 
property. 

In conclusion, then, it may be said that Tuskegee's graduates and 
former students through what they are doing in the teaching of trades and 
agriculture to thousands of students, through agricultural demonstration 
work, through the schools which they have established, through their own 
work in the trades and in agriculture, and through their personal influence, 
are each year increasing the returns for the money expended for their educa- 
tion. 

By their accumulation of property, by their increased industry and elH- 
ciency and by their assistance in getting the masses of the Negroes to 
accumulate property, and to be industrious and efficient, they are doing 
much for the development and prosperity of the South. 



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